Metabolic syndrome and its components are related to a higher risk for albuminuria and proteinuria: Evidence from a meta-analysis on 10,603,067 subjects from 57 studies.Diabetes Metab Syndr 2019 Jan - Feb; 13(1):830-843DM
BACKGROUND & AIM
Previous studies have explored the relation of metabolic syndrome (MetS), its components and the risk of albuminuria/proteinuria but their results are inconsistent. Then, we aimed to conduct a meta-analysis in order to resolve these controversies.
PubMed and Scopus were systematically searched from their inception to 1 march 2018. Risk estimates and their 95% confidence intervals were extracted and pooled using the random-effects approach.
A total of 57 studies, 44 studies on albuminuria and 13 studies on proteinuria, with a total sample size of 10,603,067 participants, were included in this meta-analysis. Overall, MetS was contributed to higher risks of proteinuria (OR = 2.08, 95%CI = 1.85-2.34) and albuminuria (OR = 1.92, 95%CI = 1.71-2.15), independent of diabetes status; although, this relationship was more noticeable in studies that used the WHO definition of MetS and in non-East Asian populations. Also, the relationship between MetS and proteinuria was sex independent, while, for albuminuria was significant only in men. MetS components such as obesity, impaired fasting glucose, elevated blood pressure and hypertriglyceridemia were associated with significant increases in proteinuria and albuminuria risk, while lower HDL-Cholesterol was only linked to greater risk of proteinuria. Moreover, the total impact of MetS on proteinuria was more remarkable than each component of the syndrome and an escalating dose-response association was found between the number of MetS components and albuminuria risk.
MetS and its components are potential risk factors for albuminuria and proteinuria.