[Malaria in Switzerland].Schweiz Med Wochenschr. 1988 Dec 10; 118(49):1838-43.SM
Some 200 cases of malaria are officially reported yearly in Switzerland. It is estimated that 2000-8000 Swiss travellers are infected by the anopheles mosquito annually, with 90% protected by chemoprophylaxis. An attack of malaria appears to have a better prognosis when the symptoms start in Africa, since treatment is initiated immediately, than in industrialized countries where the mortality is 1-4%. Failure to inquire into travel history is often responsible for the delay in initiating treatment. Severe falciparum malaria is treated by repeated slow quinine infusions followed by 1500 mg sulfadoxine, 75 mg pyrimethamine and 750 mg mefloquine (single dose). This adult dose corresponds to 3 tablets of Lariam and 3 of Fansidar (or 3 of Fansimef). The increase in chloroquine resistance among falciparum strains has led to the use of Fansidar for chemoprophylaxis, followed by the use of mefloquine when Fansidar resistance occurs. The dosage of mefloquine is 250 mg weekly (1 tablet Lariam) for 4 weeks, followed by 1 tablet every fortnight. Treatment is continued for 1 month after return. If the risk of transmission is low, chemoprophylaxis may be replaced by prescription of a reserve drug to be taken in case of fever and headache. A sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine-mefloquine combination (i.e. 3 tablets Fansimef) has been tested in this indication. Ineffective chemoprophylaxis may lead to atypical clinical syndromes, e.g. anemia, hepatosplenomegaly and jaundice, without episodes of fever. HIV positive subjects may risk travelling in tropical countries if they have undergone correct chemoprophylaxis.