The central adaptor molecule TRIF influences L. sigmodontis worm development.Parasitol Res 2019; 118(2):539-549PR
Worldwide approximately 68 million people are infected with lymphatic filariasis (Lf), provoked by Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi and Brugia timori. This disease can lead to massive swelling of the limbs (elephantiasis) and disfigurement of the male genitalia (hydrocele). Filarial induced immune regulation is characterised by dominant type 2 helper T cell and regulatory immune responses. In vitro studies have provided evidence that signalling via Toll-like receptor-mediated pathways is triggered by filarial associated factors. Nevertheless, until now, less is known about the role of the adapter molecule TRIF during in vivo infections. Here, we used the rodent-specific nematode Litomosoides sigmodontis to investigate the role of TLR signalling and the corresponding downstream adapter and regulatory molecules TRIF, MyD88, IRF1 and IRF3 during an ongoing infection in semi-susceptible C57BL/6 mice. Interestingly, lack of the central adapter molecule TRIF led to higher worm burden and reduced overall absolute cell numbers in the thoracic cavity (the site of infection) 30 days post-infection. In addition, frequencies of macrophages and lymphocytes in the TC were increased in infected TRIF-/- C57BL/6 mice, whereas frequencies of eosinophils, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were reduced. Nevertheless, cytokine levels and regulatory T cell populations remained comparable between TRIF-deficient and wildtype C57BL/6 mice upon 30 days of L. sigmodontis infection. In summary, this study revealed a crucial role of the adapter molecule TRIF on worm recovery and immune cell recruitment into the site of infection 30 days upon L. sigmodontis infection in C57BL/6 mice.