Novel canine anti-Coccidioides immunoglobulin G enzyme immunoassay aids in diagnosis of coccidioidomycosis in dogs.Med Mycol. 2019 Oct 01; 57(7):800-806.MM
The diagnosis of coccidioidomycosis (CM) in dogs is typically based on clinical presentation, serology, and (less frequently) spherule identification. Agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) is the most commonly employed serological method, but AGID is slow (requiring up to a week for titer). A Coccidioides antigen enzyme immunoassay (EIA) is also available; however, sensitivity is low in CM dogs. An antibody EIA was developed to detect canine immunoglobulin G (IgG) reacting to Coccidioides antigens. Serum was evaluated from dogs with pathology proven CM and/or AGID positive CM, as well as dogs with histoplasmosis, blastomycosis, non-fungal infections, or healthy dogs. A standard curve was used to convert optical density (OD) values into EIA units (EU). Serum and urine samples from CM dogs were also tested in the antigen EIA. Sensitivity and specificity for IgG were 89.2% and 97.2%, respectively, upon evaluation of dogs with proven or probable CM and control dogs. Cross-reactivity was observed in 7.7% and in 6.4% of dogs with histoplasmosis or blastomycosis, respectively. The antigen EIA alone was insensitive (33.8%). Combined IgG and antigen testing increased sensitivity to 93.2%, as three dogs were IgG-negative but had detectable serum or urine antigen. In 22 dogs with proven CM, sensitivity was statistically similar for antibody EIA and AGID (86% and 73%; P = .487). The MiraVista® canine Coccidioides antibody IgG EIA may aid in the diagnosis of CM by improving turnaround time with comparable sensitivity to AGID. Serial or concurrent testing by antibody and antigen EIAs may be beneficial when screening dogs for CM.