Breakfast Choice Is Associated with Nutrient, Food Group and Discretionary Intakes in Australian Adults at Both Breakfast and the Rest of the Day.Nutrients. 2019 Jan 15; 11(1)N
Breakfast choice is correlated with daily nutrient intakes, but this association may not be solely explained by the breakfast meal. We profiled breakfast consumer groups among Australian adults and compared the role that breakfast versus the rest of the day had on daily intakes of the Five Food Groups, discretionary foods, and nutrients. Breakfast groups were breakfast cereal consumers, non-cereal breakfast consumers, and breakfast skippers. One-day dietary recall data from the 2011⁻2012 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey were analysed (n = 9341, ≥19 years), as well as socio-demographic and anthropometric measures. Twelve per cent of adults were breakfast skippers, 41% were breakfast cereal consumers, and 47% were non-cereal breakfast consumers. Females were more likely to have a non-cereal breakfast than males, and the non-cereal breakfast was predominantly bread-based. Breakfast skipping decreased with age (p < 0.001), while breakfast cereal consumption increased with age (p < 0.001). Breakfast skippers were more likely to be male, had a lower socio-economic status, and lower physical activity levels (p < 0.001). Breakfast skippers had the highest mean body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (p < 0.001), the lowest intake of wholegrain foods, fruits and vegetables, and the highest intake of discretionary foods (p < 0.001). Breakfast cereal consumers had the lowest mean BMI and waist circumference (p < 0.001) and had healthier diets at both breakfast and throughout the rest of the day. They were the most likely to meet the daily recommended serves for grain foods, fruit, dairy, and vegetables, had the highest wholegrain food intake, and the lowest discretionary intake (p < 0.001). Additionally, breakfast cereal consumers had the most favourable daily nutrient intakes, including the lowest added sugars intakes. Differences in daily diet between breakfast groups were attributed to differences in food choices both at breakfast and throughout the rest of the day.