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Omega-3 Fatty Acid Intake by Age, Gender, and Pregnancy Status in the United States: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003⁻2014.
Nutrients. 2019 Jan 15; 11(1)N

Abstract

Despite the importance of n-3 fatty acids for health, intakes remain below recommended levels. The objective of this study was to provide an updated assessment of fish and n-3 fatty acid intake (i.e., eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and EPA+DHA) in the United States using the 2003⁻2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data (n = 45,347)). Over this survey period, toddlers, children, and adolescents (aged 1⁻19) had significantly lower n-3 fatty acid intake (p < 0.001) compared to adults and seniors, which remained significant after adjusting for caloric intake. Females demonstrated lower n-3 fatty acid intake than males (p < 0.001), with adult and senior women having significantly lower intakes compared to men in the same age categories (p < 0.001) after adjustment for energy intake. Women also consumed less fish than men (5.8 versus 6.1 servings/month, p < 0.001). The estimated intakes of n-3 fatty acids in pregnant women did not differ from non-pregnant women (p = 0.6 for EPA+DHA), although pregnant women reported consuming less high n-3 fatty acid-containing fish than non-pregnant women (1.8 versus 2.6 servings/month, p < 0.001). Our findings indicate that subgroups of the population may be at higher risk of n-3 fatty acid intakes below recommended levels.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Pediatrics, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198, USA. maranda.thompson@unmc.edu.College of Public Health, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198, USA. nicholas.hein@unmc.edu.College of Allied Health Professions, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198, USA. ckhanson@unmc.edu.College of Public Health, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198, USA. lmsmith@unmc.edu.Department of Pediatrics, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198, USA. alanders@unmc.edu.Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA. richterck@email.arizona.edu.College of Public Health, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198, USA. karlstessy.bisselou@unmc.edu.College of Public Health, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198, USA. adams.kusiappiah@unmc.edu.Department of Nutritional Science, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA. pmk3@psu.edu.Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA. skulasray@email.arizona.edu.Division of Biomedical Sciences, School of Medicine, University of California Riverside, Riverside, CA 92521, USA. tmnordgren@gmail.com.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

30650613

Citation

Thompson, Maranda, et al. "Omega-3 Fatty Acid Intake By Age, Gender, and Pregnancy Status in the United States: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003⁻2014." Nutrients, vol. 11, no. 1, 2019.
Thompson M, Hein N, Hanson C, et al. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Intake by Age, Gender, and Pregnancy Status in the United States: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003⁻2014. Nutrients. 2019;11(1).
Thompson, M., Hein, N., Hanson, C., Smith, L. M., Anderson-Berry, A., Richter, C. K., Stessy Bisselou, K., Kusi Appiah, A., Kris-Etherton, P., Skulas-Ray, A. C., & Nordgren, T. M. (2019). Omega-3 Fatty Acid Intake by Age, Gender, and Pregnancy Status in the United States: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003⁻2014. Nutrients, 11(1). https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11010177
Thompson M, et al. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Intake By Age, Gender, and Pregnancy Status in the United States: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003⁻2014. Nutrients. 2019 Jan 15;11(1) PubMed PMID: 30650613.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Omega-3 Fatty Acid Intake by Age, Gender, and Pregnancy Status in the United States: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003⁻2014. AU - Thompson,Maranda, AU - Hein,Nicholas, AU - Hanson,Corrine, AU - Smith,Lynette M, AU - Anderson-Berry,Ann, AU - Richter,Chesney K, AU - Stessy Bisselou,Karl, AU - Kusi Appiah,Adams, AU - Kris-Etherton,Penny, AU - Skulas-Ray,Ann C, AU - Nordgren,Tara M, Y1 - 2019/01/15/ PY - 2018/12/13/received PY - 2019/01/02/revised PY - 2019/01/11/accepted PY - 2019/1/18/entrez PY - 2019/1/18/pubmed PY - 2019/2/15/medline KW - docosahexaenoic acid KW - eicosapentaenoic acid KW - fish oil supplements KW - lifespan KW - oily fish KW - omega-3 fatty acids JF - Nutrients JO - Nutrients VL - 11 IS - 1 N2 - Despite the importance of n-3 fatty acids for health, intakes remain below recommended levels. The objective of this study was to provide an updated assessment of fish and n-3 fatty acid intake (i.e., eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and EPA+DHA) in the United States using the 2003⁻2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data (n = 45,347)). Over this survey period, toddlers, children, and adolescents (aged 1⁻19) had significantly lower n-3 fatty acid intake (p < 0.001) compared to adults and seniors, which remained significant after adjusting for caloric intake. Females demonstrated lower n-3 fatty acid intake than males (p < 0.001), with adult and senior women having significantly lower intakes compared to men in the same age categories (p < 0.001) after adjustment for energy intake. Women also consumed less fish than men (5.8 versus 6.1 servings/month, p < 0.001). The estimated intakes of n-3 fatty acids in pregnant women did not differ from non-pregnant women (p = 0.6 for EPA+DHA), although pregnant women reported consuming less high n-3 fatty acid-containing fish than non-pregnant women (1.8 versus 2.6 servings/month, p < 0.001). Our findings indicate that subgroups of the population may be at higher risk of n-3 fatty acid intakes below recommended levels. SN - 2072-6643 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/30650613/Omega_3_Fatty_Acid_Intake_by_Age_Gender_and_Pregnancy_Status_in_the_United_States:_National_Health_and_Nutrition_Examination_Survey_2003⁻2014_ L2 - http://www.mdpi.com/resolver?pii=nu11010177 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -