Multicentre investigation of carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli in Bulgarian hospitals - Interregional spread of ST11 NDM-1-producing K. pneumoniae.Infect Genet Evol. 2019 04; 69:61-67.IG
The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms of beta-lactam-resistance and the clonal relatedness of carbapenem-nonsusceptible Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli isolates, collected consecutively in eight centers in five Bulgarian cities from November 2014 to March 2018. Carbapenemase-producing enterobacteria were detected in all but one centers. Overall, 104 K. pneumoniae and one E. coli were analysed.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Antimicrobial susceptibility and beta-lactamases were analysed. Conjugation experiments, plasmid fingerprinting and replicon typing, as well as MLST and ERIC-PCR were carried out.
KPC-2 (51%) and NDM-1 (47%) were the main carbapenemases identified. KPC-2 producing K. pneumoniae were classified into 10 MLST-types. The four dominating MLST-types ST29, ST15, ST336 and ST902 comprised 79% of the KPC-2 producers. All but one of the NDM-1 producing isolates belonged to the MLST-type ST11 and were found in seven centers. Furthermore, single K. pneumoniae isolates producing VIM-1 (ST147) and OXA-48 (ST15) were identified. In addition to the carbapenemases, the ESBLs CTX-M-15, CTX-M-3, and SHV-12 as well as AmpC enzyme CMY-4 were found. The FIIAs-replicon-type was found in all KPC-2 producers while the A/C-replicons dominated in NDM-1 producing isolates. The single NDM-1 producing E. coli was determined as MLST-Type ST10 (Warwick scheme).
The interregional clonal expansion of NDM-1 producing ST11 K. pneumoniae and the dissemination of blaKPC-2 carrying plasmids were responsible for the spread of carbapenemase-producing K. pneumoniae in Bulgaria. Our findings highlight the urgency to prevent dissemination of these highly transmissible and dangerous lineages.