Comparison of Outcomes of Frontline Immunosuppressive Therapy and Frontline Haploidentical Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation for Children with Severe Aplastic Anemia Who Lack an HLA-Matched Sibling Donor.Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2019 05; 25(5):975-980.BB
We compared the outcomes of immunosuppressive therapy (IST) with those of T cell-replete haploidentical donor hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (haplo-HSCT) in children and adolescents with severe aplastic anemia (SAA). The medical records of 49 patients with SAA who received frontline IST (n = 29) or frontline haplo-HSCT (n = 20) between 2012 and 2016 were analyzed retrospectively. Fourteen patients responded after the first IST, and 1 patient responded after the second IST in the frontline IST group; 12 patients underwent salvage HSCT after IST failure. Sixteen of the 20 patients who underwent frontline haplo-HSCT survived without treatment failure. The 3-year overall survival of the frontline IST group was comparable to that of the frontline haplo-HSCT group (79.3 ± 7.5% versus 85.0 ± 8.0%; χ2 = 0.110; P = .740). The 3-year failure-free survival was lower in the frontline IST group compared with the frontline haplo-HSCT group (35.9 ± 10.9% versus 80.0 ± 8.9%; χ2 = 4.089; P = .043). Five patients of the IST group who underwent salvage HSCT achieved long survival without event. The event-free survival was lower in the salvage HSCT group compared with the haplo-HSCT group (41.7 ± 14.2% versus 80.0 ± 8.9%; χ2 = 3.992; P = .046), and the incidences of acute GVHD, grade II-IV acute GVHD, chronic GVHD, and severe infection were comparable between the 2 groups. Our results suggest that frontline haplo-HSCT may be a better treatment than IST for children and adolescents with SAA who lack an HLA age-matched familial donor.