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Comparison of protein intake per eating occasion, food sources of protein and general characteristics between community-dwelling older adults with a low and high protein intake.
Clin Nutr ESPEN. 2019 02; 29:165-174.CN

Abstract

BACKGROUND & AIMS

Adequate protein intake is required to maintain muscle health in old age, but a low protein intake is very common in older adults. There is little insight in the general and dietary profile of older adults with a low protein intake. Therefore, this study aimed to compare community-dwelling older adults with a low and a high protein intake with regard to protein intake per eating occasion, food sources of protein and general participant characteristics.

METHODS

Data were used from 727 Dutch community-dwelling older adults aged ≥70 years. Protein intake at meal and snack moments was measured with two non-consecutive dietary record assisted 24-h recalls. Low protein intake was defined as below the Recommended Dietary Allowance of 0.8 g protein per kg adjusted body weight per day (g/kg aBW/d). Differences in protein and food intakes between those with a low and a high protein intake were assessed with the Mann-Whitney U test and Chi-square test. Eating occasions were compared with regard to differences between the low and high protein intake group by using MANOVA. Characteristics of older adults with low protein intake were selected by using a multiple logistic backward elimination procedure.

RESULTS

Low protein intake was present in 15% of the participants. At all eating occasions, median protein intake was lower in the low compared to the high protein intake group (breakfast, 7.8 vs. 10.8 g; lunch, 12.6 vs. 24.3 g; dinner, 21.8 vs. 31.1 g; snack moments, 6.7 vs. 9.7 g; P < 0.001), and was also consistently lower relative to energy intake. The contribution of animal protein to total protein intake was lower among the low protein intake group. Both groups obtained most protein from dairy, meat and cereals, but meat contributed less (21.5 vs. 28.2%) and cereals more (21.9 vs. 19.6%) among the low than the high protein intake group (all P < 0.01). Differences in protein intake, percentage of energy from protein and contribution of animal to total protein intake between the groups were largest at lunch compared to the other eating occasions. Out of a long list of variables, low protein intake was only associated with following a diet, being obese vs. normal-weight and drinking alcohol on none vs. some but <5 days/week (P < 0.05).

CONCLUSIONS

At all eating occasions, Dutch community-dwelling older adults with a protein intake <0.8 g/kg aBW/d ate less protein (also relative to their energy intake) and a lower proportion of animal protein compared to those with a high protein intake. These differences were largest at lunch. Major food sources of protein - in both groups - were dairy, meat and cereals. We could only identify following a diet, being obese and not drinking alcohol as general characteristics of older adults with a low protein intake.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Health Sciences, Faculty of Science, Amsterdam Public Health Research Institute, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Electronic address: linda.hengeveld@vu.nl.Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University & Research, Wageningen, the Netherlands.Department of Health Sciences, Faculty of Science, Amsterdam Public Health Research Institute, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.Centre for Nutrition, Prevention and Health Services, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven, the Netherlands.Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University & Research, Wageningen, the Netherlands.Department of Health Sciences, Faculty of Science, Amsterdam Public Health Research Institute, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

30661683

Citation

Hengeveld, Linda M., et al. "Comparison of Protein Intake Per Eating Occasion, Food Sources of Protein and General Characteristics Between Community-dwelling Older Adults With a Low and High Protein Intake." Clinical Nutrition ESPEN, vol. 29, 2019, pp. 165-174.
Hengeveld LM, Pelgröm ADA, Visser M, et al. Comparison of protein intake per eating occasion, food sources of protein and general characteristics between community-dwelling older adults with a low and high protein intake. Clin Nutr ESPEN. 2019;29:165-174.
Hengeveld, L. M., Pelgröm, A. D. A., Visser, M., Boer, J. M. A., Haveman-Nies, A., & Wijnhoven, H. A. H. (2019). Comparison of protein intake per eating occasion, food sources of protein and general characteristics between community-dwelling older adults with a low and high protein intake. Clinical Nutrition ESPEN, 29, 165-174. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clnesp.2018.10.013
Hengeveld LM, et al. Comparison of Protein Intake Per Eating Occasion, Food Sources of Protein and General Characteristics Between Community-dwelling Older Adults With a Low and High Protein Intake. Clin Nutr ESPEN. 2019;29:165-174. PubMed PMID: 30661683.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Comparison of protein intake per eating occasion, food sources of protein and general characteristics between community-dwelling older adults with a low and high protein intake. AU - Hengeveld,Linda M, AU - Pelgröm,Anouk D A, AU - Visser,Marjolein, AU - Boer,Jolanda M A, AU - Haveman-Nies,Annemien, AU - Wijnhoven,Hanneke A H, Y1 - 2018/11/09/ PY - 2018/10/09/received PY - 2018/10/22/accepted PY - 2019/1/22/entrez PY - 2019/1/22/pubmed PY - 2020/4/14/medline KW - Ageing KW - Food sources KW - Meal moments KW - Protein intake KW - Protein intake distribution SP - 165 EP - 174 JF - Clinical nutrition ESPEN JO - Clin Nutr ESPEN VL - 29 N2 - BACKGROUND & AIMS: Adequate protein intake is required to maintain muscle health in old age, but a low protein intake is very common in older adults. There is little insight in the general and dietary profile of older adults with a low protein intake. Therefore, this study aimed to compare community-dwelling older adults with a low and a high protein intake with regard to protein intake per eating occasion, food sources of protein and general participant characteristics. METHODS: Data were used from 727 Dutch community-dwelling older adults aged ≥70 years. Protein intake at meal and snack moments was measured with two non-consecutive dietary record assisted 24-h recalls. Low protein intake was defined as below the Recommended Dietary Allowance of 0.8 g protein per kg adjusted body weight per day (g/kg aBW/d). Differences in protein and food intakes between those with a low and a high protein intake were assessed with the Mann-Whitney U test and Chi-square test. Eating occasions were compared with regard to differences between the low and high protein intake group by using MANOVA. Characteristics of older adults with low protein intake were selected by using a multiple logistic backward elimination procedure. RESULTS: Low protein intake was present in 15% of the participants. At all eating occasions, median protein intake was lower in the low compared to the high protein intake group (breakfast, 7.8 vs. 10.8 g; lunch, 12.6 vs. 24.3 g; dinner, 21.8 vs. 31.1 g; snack moments, 6.7 vs. 9.7 g; P < 0.001), and was also consistently lower relative to energy intake. The contribution of animal protein to total protein intake was lower among the low protein intake group. Both groups obtained most protein from dairy, meat and cereals, but meat contributed less (21.5 vs. 28.2%) and cereals more (21.9 vs. 19.6%) among the low than the high protein intake group (all P < 0.01). Differences in protein intake, percentage of energy from protein and contribution of animal to total protein intake between the groups were largest at lunch compared to the other eating occasions. Out of a long list of variables, low protein intake was only associated with following a diet, being obese vs. normal-weight and drinking alcohol on none vs. some but <5 days/week (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: At all eating occasions, Dutch community-dwelling older adults with a protein intake <0.8 g/kg aBW/d ate less protein (also relative to their energy intake) and a lower proportion of animal protein compared to those with a high protein intake. These differences were largest at lunch. Major food sources of protein - in both groups - were dairy, meat and cereals. We could only identify following a diet, being obese and not drinking alcohol as general characteristics of older adults with a low protein intake. SN - 2405-4577 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/30661683/Comparison_of_protein_intake_per_eating_occasion_food_sources_of_protein_and_general_characteristics_between_community_dwelling_older_adults_with_a_low_and_high_protein_intake_ DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -