Human sperm DNA damage has an effect on immunological interaction between spermatozoa and fallopian tube.Andrology 2019; 7(2):228-234A
Toll-like receptors play a crucial role in the immunological interaction between the spermatozoa and fallopian tube and contribute to the ovulation, sperm capacitation, fertilization, and pregnancy.
To investigate the expression of toll-like receptors and their adaptor molecules and cytokines under the effect of spermatozoa with high DNA fragmentation (high DF) in human fallopian tube cell line (OE-E6/E7) and compare to those in normal spermatozoa.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Fresh semen samples were obtained from 10 unexplained infertile males with high DF (more than 20%) and from 10 healthy donors with a DF less than 3%. After sperm preparation, samples were co-cultured with OE-E6/E7. Toll-like receptors, myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), TIR domain-containing adapter protein (TIRAP), TIR domain-containing adapter-inducing IFN-b (TRIF), TRIF-related adapter molecule as well as IL-6, IL-8, IFN-β, and TNFα mRNA expression were evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR. Protein levels of these cytokines and chemokines were measured using ELISA method.
TLR 1-6 mRNA expression in OE-E6/E7 was significantly higher under the effect of spermatozoa with high DF compared to the spermatozoa with low DF. Furthermore, significantly increased mRNA expression of MyD88, TIRAP, and TRIF was observed in the high DF group compared to the low DF group, except TRIF-related adapter molecule. Moreover, the expression of IL-6 and IL-8 in the high DF group was significantly higher than low DF group, although there was no significant difference in IFN-β and TNFα expression between the groups.
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION
Damage-associated molecular patterns from DNA damage activate TLR signaling pathway in human fallopian tubes and result in the upregulation of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. This situation may provide pathologic environment for capacitation, fertilization, embryo development, and implantation in female reproductive tract and can be one of the mechanisms of infertility in men with high DF.