Antifungal activity of lichen compounds against dermatophytes: a review.J Appl Microbiol. 2019 Aug; 127(2):308-325.JA
The growth rate inhibition of dermatophytes by compounds extracted by acetone, ethanol, methanol and water derived from representatives of several lichen genera (e.g. Caloplaca, Everniastrum, Heterodermia, Hypotrachyna, Platismatia and Ramalina) were compared on the basis of a worldwide review of published research. The examined dermatophytes included Epidermophyton floccosum, Microsporum audouinii, M. canis, M. gypseum, M. nanum, Trichophyton longifusus, T. mentagrophytes, T. rubrum, T. tonsurans and T. violaceum. The influence of selected secondary lichen compounds, for example, usnic acid, on the growth rates of these dermatophytes was also reviewed. The measurement of inhibition by lichen compounds was performed by several methods, but mostly those employing disc diffusion, broth dilution and agar dilution. The fungicidal activity of water-extracted compounds from Heterodermia leucomela and Hypotrachyna cirrhata and of methanol-extracted compounds from Evernia divaricata and Ramalina pollinaria, as well as protolichesterinic and 2-hydroxy-4-methoxy-3,6-dimethylbenzoic acids, are distinguished.