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Alcohol Consumption Can Reduce the Risk of Gallstone Disease: A Systematic Review with a Dose-Response Meta-Analysis of Case-Control and Cohort Studies.
Gut Liver. 2019 01 15; 13(1):114-131.GL

Abstract

Background/Aims

Gallstone disease (GSD) is a common gastrointestinal disorder. Clinical epidemiological studies revealed that alcohol consumption has a preventive effect on the development of GSD. This study aimed to evaluate the relative risks of drinking for GSD development and investigate the dose-response relationships.

Methods

A systematic search of the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases for studies published up to 2018 was performed. All studies that satisfied the following eligibility criteria were included: patients with GSD with or without cholecystitis; and cohort or case-control studies investigating the association between alcohol consumption and GSD development.

Results

Sixteen case-control studies including 24,401 gallstone cases and 76,185 controls, and eight cohort studies with 14,693 GSD cases among 2,432,471 person-years were enrolled. Alcohol consumption presented a decreased overall risk of GSD (pooled relative ratio [RR], 0.84; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.79 to 0.89; p=0.02). Subgroup analyses according to drinking levels indicated a gradual risk reduction for GSD compared to nondrinkers (light: RR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.94 to 0.99; p=0.75; moderate: RR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.75 to 0.85; p=0.27; high: RR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.56 to 0.79; p<0.01). A nonlinear risk reduction was observed in a dose-response meta-analysis of all the studies (n=14, p<0.01 for nonlinearity).

Conclusions

In this systematic review with meta-analysis, alcohol consumption could decrease the risk of GSD, and the dose-response analysis revealed a dose-dependent linear risk reduction and a weakened linear trend between alcohol consumption levels less than and greater than 28 g/day.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Gastroenterology, Division of Medicine, Sheikh Khalifa Specialty Hospital, Ras Al Khaimah, UAE.Medical Research Collaborating Center, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Meta-Analysis
Systematic Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

30665280

Citation

Cha, Byung Hyo, et al. "Alcohol Consumption Can Reduce the Risk of Gallstone Disease: a Systematic Review With a Dose-Response Meta-Analysis of Case-Control and Cohort Studies." Gut and Liver, vol. 13, no. 1, 2019, pp. 114-131.
Cha BH, Jang MJ, Lee SH. Alcohol Consumption Can Reduce the Risk of Gallstone Disease: A Systematic Review with a Dose-Response Meta-Analysis of Case-Control and Cohort Studies. Gut Liver. 2019;13(1):114-131.
Cha, B. H., Jang, M. J., & Lee, S. H. (2019). Alcohol Consumption Can Reduce the Risk of Gallstone Disease: A Systematic Review with a Dose-Response Meta-Analysis of Case-Control and Cohort Studies. Gut and Liver, 13(1), 114-131. https://doi.org/10.5009/gnl18278
Cha BH, Jang MJ, Lee SH. Alcohol Consumption Can Reduce the Risk of Gallstone Disease: a Systematic Review With a Dose-Response Meta-Analysis of Case-Control and Cohort Studies. Gut Liver. 2019 01 15;13(1):114-131. PubMed PMID: 30665280.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Alcohol Consumption Can Reduce the Risk of Gallstone Disease: A Systematic Review with a Dose-Response Meta-Analysis of Case-Control and Cohort Studies. AU - Cha,Byung Hyo, AU - Jang,Myoung-Jin, AU - Lee,Sang Hyub, PY - 2018/06/16/received PY - 2018/08/31/revised PY - 2019/09/03/accepted PY - 2019/1/23/entrez PY - 2019/1/23/pubmed PY - 2019/5/16/medline KW - Alcohol drinking KW - Dose-response relationship KW - Gallstone disease KW - Meta-analysis KW - Review SP - 114 EP - 131 JF - Gut and liver JO - Gut Liver VL - 13 IS - 1 N2 - Background/Aims: Gallstone disease (GSD) is a common gastrointestinal disorder. Clinical epidemiological studies revealed that alcohol consumption has a preventive effect on the development of GSD. This study aimed to evaluate the relative risks of drinking for GSD development and investigate the dose-response relationships. Methods: A systematic search of the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases for studies published up to 2018 was performed. All studies that satisfied the following eligibility criteria were included: patients with GSD with or without cholecystitis; and cohort or case-control studies investigating the association between alcohol consumption and GSD development. Results: Sixteen case-control studies including 24,401 gallstone cases and 76,185 controls, and eight cohort studies with 14,693 GSD cases among 2,432,471 person-years were enrolled. Alcohol consumption presented a decreased overall risk of GSD (pooled relative ratio [RR], 0.84; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.79 to 0.89; p=0.02). Subgroup analyses according to drinking levels indicated a gradual risk reduction for GSD compared to nondrinkers (light: RR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.94 to 0.99; p=0.75; moderate: RR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.75 to 0.85; p=0.27; high: RR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.56 to 0.79; p<0.01). A nonlinear risk reduction was observed in a dose-response meta-analysis of all the studies (n=14, p<0.01 for nonlinearity). Conclusions: In this systematic review with meta-analysis, alcohol consumption could decrease the risk of GSD, and the dose-response analysis revealed a dose-dependent linear risk reduction and a weakened linear trend between alcohol consumption levels less than and greater than 28 g/day. SN - 2005-1212 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/30665280/Alcohol_Consumption_Can_Reduce_the_Risk_of_Gallstone_Disease:_A_Systematic_Review_with_a_Dose_Response_Meta_Analysis_of_Case_Control_and_Cohort_Studies_ L2 - http://www.gutnliver.org/journal/view.html?doi=10.5009/gnl18278 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -