Evaluating single-particle tracking by photo-activation localization microscopy (sptPALM) in Lactococcus lactis.Phys Biol 2019; 16(3):035001PB
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are frequently used in food fermentation and are invaluable for the taste and nutritional value of the fermentation end-product. To gain a better understanding of underlying biochemical and microbiological mechanisms and cell-to-cell variability in LABs, single-molecule techniques such as single-particle tracking photo-activation localization microscopy (sptPALM) hold great promises but are not yet employed due to the lack of detailed protocols and suitable assays. Here, we qualitatively test various fluorescent proteins including variants that are photoactivatable and therefore suitable for sptPALM measurements in Lactococcus lactis, a key LAB for the dairy industry. In particular, we fused PAmCherry2 to dCas9 allowing the successful tracking of single dCas9 proteins, whilst the dCas9 chimeras bound to specific guide RNAs retained their gene silencing ability in vivo. The diffusional information of the dCas9 without any targets showed different mechanistic states of dCas9: freely diffusing, bound to DNA, or transiently interacting with DNA. The capability of performing sptPALM with dCas9 in L. lactis can lead to a better, general understanding of CRISPR-Cas systems as well as paving the way for CRISPR-Cas based interrogations of cellular functions in LABs.