Evaluation of the antifungal activity of individual and combined monoterpenes against Rhizopus stolonifer and Absidia coerulea.Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2019; 26(8):7804-7809ES
The development of natural plant extracts and essential oils will help to decrease the negative effects of synthetic chemicals. In the present study, the antifungal activity of individual and combined monoterpenes against Rhizopus stolonifer and Absidia coerulea was evaluated. The results from antifungal tests showed that eugenol, carvacrol, and isoeugenol, among all the tested compounds, exhibited strong antifungal activity against the two tested fungi. Furthermore, carvacrol exhibited the most toxic effects against R. stolonifer and A. coerulea, and the IC50 values of carvacrol for the two fungi were 44.94 μg/ml and 50.83 μg/ml, respectively. The compounds (±)-menthol, b-citronellol, geraniol, 3,7-dimethyl-1-octanol, citral, and cuminaldehyde had only strong antifungal activity against R. stolonifer. In addition, the value of the synergistic co-efficient (SR) of a combination of isoeugenol and eugenol (1:1) showed an additive effect against R. stolonifer. The combination of isoeugenol and cuminaldehyde (1:1) showed an antagonistic effect against A. coerulea. Our results indicated that carvacrol and isoeugenol had potential antifungal effects against the two tested fungi and could be utilized in novel biological fungicide development.