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Hyperactivity/restlessness is associated with increased functional connectivity in adults with ADHD: a dimensional analysis of resting state fMRI.
BMC Psychiatry. 2019 01 25; 19(1):43.BP

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a serious and frequent psychiatric disorder of multifactorial pathogenesis. Several lines of evidence support the idea that ADHD is, in its core, a disorder of dysfunctional brain connectivity within and between several neurofunctional networks. The primary aim of this study was to investigate associations between the functional connectivity within resting state brain networks and the individual severity of core ADHD symptoms (inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity).

METHODS

Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) data of 38 methylphenidate-naïve adults with childhood-onset ADHD (20 women, mean age 40.5 years) were analyzed using independent component analysis (FSL's MELODIC) and FSL's dual regression technique. For motion correction, standard volume-realignment followed by independent component analysis-based automatic removal of motion artifacts (FSL's ICA-AROMA) were employed. To identify well-established brain networks, the independent components found in the ADHD group were correlated with brain networks previously found in healthy participants (Smith et al. PNAS 2009;106:13040-5). To investigate associations between functional connectivity and individual symptom severity, sex, and age, linear regressions were performed.

RESULTS

Decomposition of resting state brain activity of adults with ADHD resulted in similar resting state networks as previously described for healthy adults. No significant differences in functional connectivity were seen between women and men. Advanced age was associated with decreased functional connectivity in parts of the bilateral cingulate and paracingulate cortex within the executive control network. More severe hyperactivity was associated with increased functional connectivity in the left putamen, right caudate nucleus, right central operculum and a portion of the right postcentral gyrus within the auditory/sensorimotor network.

CONCLUSIONS

The present study supports and extends our knowledge on the involvement of the striatum in the pathophysiology of ADHD, in particular, in the pathogenesis of hyperactivity. Our results emphasize the usefulness of dimensional analyses in the study of ADHD, a highly heterogeneous disorder.

TRIAL REGISTRATION

ISRCTN12722296 (https://doi.org/10.1186/ISRCTN12722296).

Authors+Show Affiliations

Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, School of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Oldenburg, Oldenburg, Germany. peter.soros@gmail.com. Research Center Neurosensory Science, University of Oldenburg, Oldenburg, Germany. peter.soros@gmail.com.Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Medical Center - University of Freiburg, Faculty of Medicine, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany.Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Medical Center - University of Freiburg, Faculty of Medicine, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany.Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Medical Center - University of Freiburg, Faculty of Medicine, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany.Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Medical Center - University of Freiburg, Faculty of Medicine, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany.Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Medical Center - University of Freiburg, Faculty of Medicine, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany.Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany.Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, School of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Oldenburg, Oldenburg, Germany.Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Medical Center - University of Freiburg, Faculty of Medicine, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany. Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany.Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Randomized Controlled Trial
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

30683074

Citation

Sörös, Peter, et al. "Hyperactivity/restlessness Is Associated With Increased Functional Connectivity in Adults With ADHD: a Dimensional Analysis of Resting State FMRI." BMC Psychiatry, vol. 19, no. 1, 2019, p. 43.
Sörös P, Hoxhaj E, Borel P, et al. Hyperactivity/restlessness is associated with increased functional connectivity in adults with ADHD: a dimensional analysis of resting state fMRI. BMC Psychiatry. 2019;19(1):43.
Sörös, P., Hoxhaj, E., Borel, P., Sadohara, C., Feige, B., Matthies, S., Müller, H. H. O., Bachmann, K., Schulze, M., & Philipsen, A. (2019). Hyperactivity/restlessness is associated with increased functional connectivity in adults with ADHD: a dimensional analysis of resting state fMRI. BMC Psychiatry, 19(1), 43. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12888-019-2031-9
Sörös P, et al. Hyperactivity/restlessness Is Associated With Increased Functional Connectivity in Adults With ADHD: a Dimensional Analysis of Resting State FMRI. BMC Psychiatry. 2019 01 25;19(1):43. PubMed PMID: 30683074.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Hyperactivity/restlessness is associated with increased functional connectivity in adults with ADHD: a dimensional analysis of resting state fMRI. AU - Sörös,Peter, AU - Hoxhaj,Eliza, AU - Borel,Patricia, AU - Sadohara,Chiharu, AU - Feige,Bernd, AU - Matthies,Swantje, AU - Müller,Helge H O, AU - Bachmann,Katharina, AU - Schulze,Marcel, AU - Philipsen,Alexandra, Y1 - 2019/01/25/ PY - 2018/04/16/received PY - 2019/01/16/accepted PY - 2019/1/27/entrez PY - 2019/1/27/pubmed PY - 2019/11/20/medline KW - ADHD KW - Adult KW - Age KW - Functional connectivity KW - Hyperactivity KW - Impulsivity KW - Inattention KW - Resting state fMRI SP - 43 EP - 43 JF - BMC psychiatry JO - BMC Psychiatry VL - 19 IS - 1 N2 - BACKGROUND: Adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a serious and frequent psychiatric disorder of multifactorial pathogenesis. Several lines of evidence support the idea that ADHD is, in its core, a disorder of dysfunctional brain connectivity within and between several neurofunctional networks. The primary aim of this study was to investigate associations between the functional connectivity within resting state brain networks and the individual severity of core ADHD symptoms (inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity). METHODS: Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) data of 38 methylphenidate-naïve adults with childhood-onset ADHD (20 women, mean age 40.5 years) were analyzed using independent component analysis (FSL's MELODIC) and FSL's dual regression technique. For motion correction, standard volume-realignment followed by independent component analysis-based automatic removal of motion artifacts (FSL's ICA-AROMA) were employed. To identify well-established brain networks, the independent components found in the ADHD group were correlated with brain networks previously found in healthy participants (Smith et al. PNAS 2009;106:13040-5). To investigate associations between functional connectivity and individual symptom severity, sex, and age, linear regressions were performed. RESULTS: Decomposition of resting state brain activity of adults with ADHD resulted in similar resting state networks as previously described for healthy adults. No significant differences in functional connectivity were seen between women and men. Advanced age was associated with decreased functional connectivity in parts of the bilateral cingulate and paracingulate cortex within the executive control network. More severe hyperactivity was associated with increased functional connectivity in the left putamen, right caudate nucleus, right central operculum and a portion of the right postcentral gyrus within the auditory/sensorimotor network. CONCLUSIONS: The present study supports and extends our knowledge on the involvement of the striatum in the pathophysiology of ADHD, in particular, in the pathogenesis of hyperactivity. Our results emphasize the usefulness of dimensional analyses in the study of ADHD, a highly heterogeneous disorder. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN12722296 (https://doi.org/10.1186/ISRCTN12722296). SN - 1471-244X UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/30683074/Hyperactivity/restlessness_is_associated_with_increased_functional_connectivity_in_adults_with_ADHD:_a_dimensional_analysis_of_resting_state_fMRI_ L2 - https://bmcpsychiatry.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12888-019-2031-9 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -