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Ambient ozone and fine particulate matter exposures and autism spectrum disorder in metropolitan Cincinnati, Ohio.
Environ Res. 2019 04; 171:218-227.ER

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Epidemiological studies report fairly consistent associations between various air pollution metrics and autism spectrum disorder (ASD), with some elevated risks reported for different prenatal and postnatal periods.

OBJECTIVES

To examine associations between ASD and ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ozone concentrations during the prenatal period through the second year of life in a case-control study.

METHODS

ASD cases (n = 428) diagnosed at Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center were frequency matched (15:1) to 6420 controls from Ohio birth records. We assigned daily PM2.5 and ozone estimates for 2005-2012 from US EPA's Fused Air Quality Surface Using Downscaling model to each participant for each day based on the mother's census tract of residence at birth. We calculated adjusted odds ratios (aORs) using logistic regression across continuous and categorical exposure window averages (trimesters, first and second postnatal years, and cumulative measure), adjusting for maternal- and birth-related confounders, both air pollutants, and multiple temporal exposure windows.

RESULTS

We detected elevated aORs for PM2.5 during the 2nd trimester, 1st year of life, and a cumulative period from pregnancy through the 2nd year (aOR ranges across categories: 1.41-1.44, 1.54-1.84, and 1.41-1.52 respectively), and for ozone in the 2nd year of life (aOR range across categories: 1.29-1.42). Per each change in IQR, we observed elevated aORs for ozone in the 3rd trimester, 1st and 2nd years of life, and the cumulative period (aOR range: 1.19-1.27) and for PM2.5 in the 2nd trimester, 1st year of life, and the cumulative period (aOR range: 1.11-1.17).

DISCUSSION

We saw limited evidence of linear exposure-response relationships for ASD with increasing air pollution, but the elevated aORs detected for PM2.5 in upper exposure categories and per IQR unit increases were similar in magnitude to those reported in previous studies, especially for postnatal exposures.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Association of Schools and Programs of Public Health, hosted by National Center for Environmental Assessment, Office of Research and Development, US EPA, 26W. Martin Luther King Dr., Cincinnati, OH 45268, United States. Electronic address: jakauf2@emory.edu.National Center for Environmental Assessment, Office of Research and Development, US EPA, 26W. Martin Luther King Dr., Cincinnati, OH 45268, United States.National Center for Environmental Assessment, Office of Research and Development, US EPA, 26W. Martin Luther King Dr., Cincinnati, OH 45268, United States.84.51°, 100 W 5th St, Cincinnati, OH 45202, United States.Division of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, 3333 Burnet Ave, Cincinnati, OH 45229, United States.Division of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, 3333 Burnet Ave, Cincinnati, OH 45229, United States.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

30684889

Citation

Kaufman, John A., et al. "Ambient Ozone and Fine Particulate Matter Exposures and Autism Spectrum Disorder in Metropolitan Cincinnati, Ohio." Environmental Research, vol. 171, 2019, pp. 218-227.
Kaufman JA, Wright JM, Rice G, et al. Ambient ozone and fine particulate matter exposures and autism spectrum disorder in metropolitan Cincinnati, Ohio. Environ Res. 2019;171:218-227.
Kaufman, J. A., Wright, J. M., Rice, G., Connolly, N., Bowers, K., & Anixt, J. (2019). Ambient ozone and fine particulate matter exposures and autism spectrum disorder in metropolitan Cincinnati, Ohio. Environmental Research, 171, 218-227. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2019.01.013
Kaufman JA, et al. Ambient Ozone and Fine Particulate Matter Exposures and Autism Spectrum Disorder in Metropolitan Cincinnati, Ohio. Environ Res. 2019;171:218-227. PubMed PMID: 30684889.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Ambient ozone and fine particulate matter exposures and autism spectrum disorder in metropolitan Cincinnati, Ohio. AU - Kaufman,John A, AU - Wright,J Michael, AU - Rice,Glenn, AU - Connolly,Natalia, AU - Bowers,Katherine, AU - Anixt,Julia, Y1 - 2019/01/10/ PY - 2018/08/07/received PY - 2018/12/13/revised PY - 2019/01/05/accepted PY - 2019/1/27/pubmed PY - 2019/1/27/medline PY - 2019/1/27/entrez KW - Air pollution KW - Environmental epidemiology KW - Environmental neurology KW - Environmental psychology SP - 218 EP - 227 JF - Environmental research JO - Environ. Res. VL - 171 N2 - BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies report fairly consistent associations between various air pollution metrics and autism spectrum disorder (ASD), with some elevated risks reported for different prenatal and postnatal periods. OBJECTIVES: To examine associations between ASD and ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ozone concentrations during the prenatal period through the second year of life in a case-control study. METHODS: ASD cases (n = 428) diagnosed at Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center were frequency matched (15:1) to 6420 controls from Ohio birth records. We assigned daily PM2.5 and ozone estimates for 2005-2012 from US EPA's Fused Air Quality Surface Using Downscaling model to each participant for each day based on the mother's census tract of residence at birth. We calculated adjusted odds ratios (aORs) using logistic regression across continuous and categorical exposure window averages (trimesters, first and second postnatal years, and cumulative measure), adjusting for maternal- and birth-related confounders, both air pollutants, and multiple temporal exposure windows. RESULTS: We detected elevated aORs for PM2.5 during the 2nd trimester, 1st year of life, and a cumulative period from pregnancy through the 2nd year (aOR ranges across categories: 1.41-1.44, 1.54-1.84, and 1.41-1.52 respectively), and for ozone in the 2nd year of life (aOR range across categories: 1.29-1.42). Per each change in IQR, we observed elevated aORs for ozone in the 3rd trimester, 1st and 2nd years of life, and the cumulative period (aOR range: 1.19-1.27) and for PM2.5 in the 2nd trimester, 1st year of life, and the cumulative period (aOR range: 1.11-1.17). DISCUSSION: We saw limited evidence of linear exposure-response relationships for ASD with increasing air pollution, but the elevated aORs detected for PM2.5 in upper exposure categories and per IQR unit increases were similar in magnitude to those reported in previous studies, especially for postnatal exposures. SN - 1096-0953 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/30684889/Ambient_ozone_and_fine_particulate_matter_exposures_and_autism_spectrum_disorder_in_metropolitan_Cincinnati_Ohio_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0013-9351(19)30011-8 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -