Upper airway features of unilateral cleft lip and palate patients in different growth stages.Angle Orthod. 2019 07; 89(4):575-582.AO
To compare growth-related changes of skeletal and upper airway features of unilateral cleft lip and palate subjects (UCLP) with non-cleft control (NCC) subjects by using lateral cephalograms.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The sample comprised 238 subjects, collected cross-sectionally, divided into 2 groups: 94 with UCLP, and 144 NCC, subdivided into 4 groups according to their growth stages by using cervical vertebral maturation stage (CVMS). The subgroups were defined as early childhood (stage 1), prepubertal (stage 2: CVMS I and II), pubertal (stage 3: CVMS III and IV), and postpubertal (stage 4: CVMS V and VI).
The maxilla was more retrognathic at stages 2, 3, and 4 in females with UCLP. The mandible was more retrognathic in UCLP at stage 1 in males, and stages 2 and 3 in females. ANB (angle between NA plane and NB plane) was significantly smaller in UCLP subjects at stage 4 for both sexes. A vertical growth pattern was seen in UCLP subjects except males at stages 2 and 3, and females at stage 2. Posterior airway space was significantly narrower at all stages in males and after stage 1 in females. Middle airway space was significantly wider at all stages in females and after stage 1 in males. Epiglottic airway space was significantly narrower in males at stage 3.
Age- and sex-dependent differences in skeletal morphology and upper-airway widths of the UCLP subjects were identified when compared with controls.