Anorexia Is Independently Associated with Decreased Muscle Mass and Strength in Community Dwelling Older Adults.J Nutr Health Aging. 2019; 23(2):202-206.JN
We aimed to investigate the association between anorexia and sarcopenia in community dwelling older adults.
Anorexia was assessed by Simplified Nutritional Appetite Questionnaire (SNAQ) and sarcopenia defined by EWSGOP criteria. Study participants consisted of 442 patients from Turkish validation study of the SNAQ. Study is designed as cross-sectional in community dwelling outpatients.
Muscle mass was determined by using bioimpedance analysis. Skeletal muscle mass index (SMMI) was calculated as SMM (kg)/height (m)2. Muscle strength was evaluated by hand grip strength (HGS) with Jamar hydraulic hand dynamometer. Gait speed (GS) was assessed by usual 4 meters speed. Depression and quality of life were assessed by using Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) and Euro-Quality of Life-5D(EQ-5D). Univariate analysis and multivariate regression analysis were run to evaluate the association between poor appetite and components of sarcopenia.
Prevalences of low HGS, low gait speed and sarcopenia were higher in group with poor appetite (p=0.001, p<0.0001, p=0.036, respectively). Depression and constipation were more prevalent in participants with poor appetite (p<0.0001, p=0.033, respectively). SNAQ was correlated with SMMI and EQ-5D. Regression analysis showed that lower muscle mass, lower SMMI, and lower HGS were independently associated with poor appetite after adjustment for confounders. Neither gait speed nor diagnosis of sarcopenia was associated with poor appetite in regression analysis models.
We observed poor appetite has independent association with lower skeletal muscle mass and decreased muscle strength. Prospective studies are needed to evaluate exact relationship between poor appetite and sarcopenia.