Accretion of Dietary Docosahexaenoic Acid in Mouse Tissues Did Not Differ between Its Purified Phospholipid and Triacylglycerol Forms.Lipids. 2019 01; 54(1):25-37.L
Recent studies suggest that dietary krill oil leads to higher omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) tissue accretion compared to fish oil because the former is rich in n-3 PUFA esterified as phospholipids (PL), while n-3 PUFA in fish oil are primarily esterified as triacylglycerols (TAG). Tissue accretion of the same dietary concentrations of PL- and TAG-docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3) (DHA) has not been compared and was the focus of this study. Mice (n = 12/group) were fed either a control diet or one of six DHA (1%, 2%, or 4%) as PL-DHA or TAG-DHA diets for 4 weeks. Compared with the control, DHA concentration in liver, adipose tissue (AT), heart, and eye, but not brain, were significantly higher in mice consuming either PL- or TAG-DHA, but there was no difference in DHA concentration in all tissues between the PL- or TAG-DHA forms. Consumption of PL- and TAG-DHA at all concentrations significantly elevated eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3) (EPA) in all tissues when compared with the control group, while docoshexapentaenoic acid (22:5n-6) (DPA) was significantly higher in all tissues except for the eye and heart. Both DHA forms lowered total omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-6 PUFA) in all tissues and total monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) in the liver and AT; total saturated fatty acid (SFA) were lowered in the liver but elevated in the AT. An increase in the DHA dose, independent of DHA forms, significantly lowered n-6 PUFA and significantly elevated n-3 PUFA concentration in all tissues. Our results do not support the claim that the PL form of n-3 PUFA leads to higher n-3 PUFA tissue accretion than their TAG form.