Inadequate fat or carbohydrate intake was associated with an increased incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Korean adults: A 12-year community-based prospective cohort study.Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2019 Feb; 148:254-261.DR
Few studies have focused on the relationship between long-term fat intake and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) risk in Asia where fat intake is relatively lower than the Western countries. We examined association of dietary fat and carbohydrate intake with incidence of T2D among Korean adults.
Based on the data from the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study, a total of 5595 adults aged 40-69 years without diabetes, cardiovascular diseases or any cancer at baseline were included. Dietary intake was measured by the validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used to calculate multivariable-adjusted relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs).
During a median follow-up of 138-months, 1010 cases of T2D were newly determined. The proportion of participants with fat intake less than 15% of total energy and with carbohydrate intake more than 65% of total energy was 59.0% and 88.9%, respectively. After adjusting for confounders, a very-low-fat intake was associated with an increased risk of T2D (RR of Quartile 1 vs Quartile 4, 1.74; 95% CI, 1.18-2.57; p for trend = 0.0058) in women. A very-high-carbohydrate intake was associated with an increased risk of T2D in men (RR of Quartile 4 vs Quartile 1, 1.54; 95% CI, 1.03-2.30; p for trend = 0.0124) and women (RR of Quartile 4 vs Quartile 1, 1.69; 95% CI, 1.08-2.67; p for trend = 0.0376).
A very-low-fat or very-high-carbohydrate intake may increase the T2D risk and might be associated with lower intake of various nutrients and unbalanced macronutrient composition.