Evaluation of anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of the methanol extract of Holigarna caustica (Dennst.) Oken leaves.J Ethnopharmacol. 2019 May 23; 236:401-411.JE
Holigarna caustica (Dennst.) is commonly used in traditional medicine to treat a variety of painful conditions such as eye irritation, inflammation, arthritis, skin diseases, cuts and wounds.
AIM OF THE STUDY
The present study was undertaken to investigate the anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of the methanol extract of H. caustica leaves and to elucidate its possible mechanism(s) of action.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Fresh leaves of H. caustica were collected, dried, and extracted with methanol (MEHC). MEHC was subjected to activity testing, using chemical-induced (acetic acid and formalin test) and heat-induced (hot plate and tail immersion test) pain models. To determine the possible mechanism behind the anti-nociceptive activity of MEHC, the opioid antagonist naltrexone was used to evaluate the involvement of opioid receptors in the case of formalin, hot plate and tail immersion tests, while the involvement of the cGMP and ATP-sensitive K+ channel pathways were assessed using methylene blue and glibenclamide respectively, in the acetic acid-induced writhing test. In parallel, the carrageenan-induced paw oedema model was used to determine the anti-inflammatory potential of the extract. Exploratory and motor behaviours were evaluated by the open-field test. Various bioactive compounds potentially responsible for the anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities were ascertained using GC-MS analysis.
MEHC showed strong, significant and dose-dependent anti-nociceptive activity in all chemical-induced and heat-induced pain models at all experimental doses. The association of opioid receptors with the observed anti-nociceptive effects was confirmed by using naltrexone. The cGMP and ATP-sensitive K+ channel pathway was also shown to be involved in the anti-nociceptive activity of MEHC. In addition, MEHC exhibited a dose-dependent inhibition of inflammatory oedema induced by carrageenan. MEHC was not connected with changes in either the locomotor activity or motor responses of mice. In a GC-MS analysis, 40 compounds were identified, among which twelve are documented bioactive compounds with potent analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties.
Our current study revealed that MEHC possesses strong central and peripheral anti-nociceptive as well as anti-inflammatory activity. It may also be concluded that both opioid receptors as well as the cGMP and ATP-sensitive K+ channel pathway are involved in the anti-nociceptive mechanism of MEHC. This study rationalizes the ethnomedicinal use of H. caustica leaves in various painful conditions.