Assessing bone impairment in ankylosing spondylitis (AS) using the trabecular bone score (TBS) and high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT).Bone. 2019 05; 122:8-13.BONE
To compare bone quality using the trabecular bone score (TBS) and bone microarchitecture in the distal tibia using high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) in ankylosing spondylitis (AS) patients and healthy controls (HC).
Areal bone mineral density (aBMD) and TBS (TBS iNsight software) were evaluated using DXA (Hologic, QDR 4500); while volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) and bone microarchitecture were analyzed in the distal tibia using HR-pQCT (Scanco) in 73 male patients with AS and 52 age-matched HC.
AS patients were a mean 41.6 ± 7.9 years old and had a mean disease duration of 16.4 ± 8.6 y, with a mean mSASSS 25.6 ± 16.4. No difference was observed in lumbar spine aBMD in AS patients and HC (p = 0.112), but total hip BMD (p = 0.011) and TBS (p < 0.001) were lower in AS patients. In the distal tibia, reduced trabecular volumetric density [Tb.vBMD (p < 0.006)] and structural alterations - trabecular thickness (Tb.Th), p = 0.044 and trabecular separation (Tb.Sp), p = 0.039 - were observed in AS patients relative to controls. Further analysis comparing TBS < 1.310 and TBS ≥ 1.310 in AS patients revealed a higher mean body mass index [BMI] (p = 0.010), lower tibia cortical vBMD [Ct.vBMD] (p = 0.007), lower tibia cortical thickness [Ct.Th]: (p = 0.048) in the former group. On logistic regression analysis, BMI (OR = 1.27; 95%IC = 1.08-1.50, p = 0.005), (VF 4.65; 1.13-19.1, p = 0.033) and tibial Ct.vBMD (0.98; 0.97-1.00, p = 0.007) were associated with a lower TBS (<1.310).
The present study demonstrates that TBS and HR-pQCT imaging are important technologies evaluating bone impairment in AS patients. Moreover, in these patients vertebral fractures were associated with lower TBS.