Pain Management in Trauma in the Age of the Opioid Crisis.Anesthesiol Clin 2019; 37(1):79-91AC
It is imperative to find the balance between pain control and addressing the opioid epidemic. Opioids, although effective in the acute pain management, have multiple side effects and can lead to dependence, abuse, overdose, or death. Physicians should identify patients who abuse opioids, using their states' prescription drug-monitoring programs and use screening tools to identify patients at increased risk of developing opioid dependence. Multimodal analgesic plans, incorporating regional techniques, and nonopioid medications should be employed to reduce the amount of opioids received by patients.