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Unique Effects of Perceived Neighborhood Physical Disorder and Social Cohesion on Episodic Memory and Semantic Fluency.
Arch Clin Neuropsychol. 2019 Nov 27; 34(8):1346-1355.AC

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

Objective measures of neighborhood quality are associated with physical and mental health outcomes for older adults, but the relationship between perceived neighborhood quality and cognitive health has not been fully explored. Furthermore, positive and negative neighborhood characteristics may influence cognition through different mechanisms. The present study aimed to determine whether perceptions of neighborhood quality predict cognitive functioning in two domains, above and beyond individual-level risk factors, in a nationally representative sample of older adults.

METHOD

Using cross-sectional weighted data from 13,919 participants aged 51 and older from the Health and Retirement Study, linear regression models tested independent associations between perceived neighborhood quality (physical disorder and social cohesion) and cognition (episodic memory and semantic verbal fluency), controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, chronic disease burden, and depressive symptoms. Interaction terms tested whether neighborhood social cohesion moderated the relationship between neighborhood physical disorder and each cognitive outcome.

RESULTS

Perception of greater neighborhood physical disorder was significantly associated with worse episodic memory, while perception of lower neighborhood social cohesion was significantly associated with worse semantic fluency. There were no significant interactions between physical disorder and social cohesion.

CONCLUSIONS

Results provide preliminary evidence for different mechanisms underlying associations between aspects of neighborhood quality and cognition (e.g., stress vs. social interaction). Additional intervention work is needed to determine whether improving neighborhood physical conditions and promoting social cohesion at the neighborhood level could reduce cognitive morbidity among older adults.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Psychology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.Department of Psychology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.Department of Psychology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.Department of Psychology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.Department of Psychology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.Department of Psychology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

30715092

Citation

Zaheed, Afsara B., et al. "Unique Effects of Perceived Neighborhood Physical Disorder and Social Cohesion On Episodic Memory and Semantic Fluency." Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology : the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists, vol. 34, no. 8, 2019, pp. 1346-1355.
Zaheed AB, Sharifian N, Kraal AZ, et al. Unique Effects of Perceived Neighborhood Physical Disorder and Social Cohesion on Episodic Memory and Semantic Fluency. Arch Clin Neuropsychol. 2019;34(8):1346-1355.
Zaheed, A. B., Sharifian, N., Kraal, A. Z., Sol, K., Hence, A., & Zahodne, L. B. (2019). Unique Effects of Perceived Neighborhood Physical Disorder and Social Cohesion on Episodic Memory and Semantic Fluency. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology : the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists, 34(8), 1346-1355. https://doi.org/10.1093/arclin/acy098
Zaheed AB, et al. Unique Effects of Perceived Neighborhood Physical Disorder and Social Cohesion On Episodic Memory and Semantic Fluency. Arch Clin Neuropsychol. 2019 Nov 27;34(8):1346-1355. PubMed PMID: 30715092.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Unique Effects of Perceived Neighborhood Physical Disorder and Social Cohesion on Episodic Memory and Semantic Fluency. AU - Zaheed,Afsara B, AU - Sharifian,Neika, AU - Kraal,A Zarina, AU - Sol,Ketlyne, AU - Hence,Alyssia, AU - Zahodne,Laura B, PY - 2018/06/12/received PY - 2018/05/10/revised PY - 2018/11/26/accepted PY - 2019/2/5/pubmed PY - 2020/3/12/medline PY - 2019/2/5/entrez KW - Aging KW - Chronic stress KW - Cognition KW - Neighborhoods KW - Social interaction SP - 1346 EP - 1355 JF - Archives of clinical neuropsychology : the official journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists JO - Arch Clin Neuropsychol VL - 34 IS - 8 N2 - OBJECTIVE: Objective measures of neighborhood quality are associated with physical and mental health outcomes for older adults, but the relationship between perceived neighborhood quality and cognitive health has not been fully explored. Furthermore, positive and negative neighborhood characteristics may influence cognition through different mechanisms. The present study aimed to determine whether perceptions of neighborhood quality predict cognitive functioning in two domains, above and beyond individual-level risk factors, in a nationally representative sample of older adults. METHOD: Using cross-sectional weighted data from 13,919 participants aged 51 and older from the Health and Retirement Study, linear regression models tested independent associations between perceived neighborhood quality (physical disorder and social cohesion) and cognition (episodic memory and semantic verbal fluency), controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, chronic disease burden, and depressive symptoms. Interaction terms tested whether neighborhood social cohesion moderated the relationship between neighborhood physical disorder and each cognitive outcome. RESULTS: Perception of greater neighborhood physical disorder was significantly associated with worse episodic memory, while perception of lower neighborhood social cohesion was significantly associated with worse semantic fluency. There were no significant interactions between physical disorder and social cohesion. CONCLUSIONS: Results provide preliminary evidence for different mechanisms underlying associations between aspects of neighborhood quality and cognition (e.g., stress vs. social interaction). Additional intervention work is needed to determine whether improving neighborhood physical conditions and promoting social cohesion at the neighborhood level could reduce cognitive morbidity among older adults. SN - 1873-5843 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/30715092/Unique_Effects_of_Perceived_Neighborhood_Physical_Disorder_and_Social_Cohesion_on_Episodic_Memory_and_Semantic_Fluency_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/acn/article-lookup/doi/10.1093/arclin/acy098 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -