Relationship between sensory liking for fat, sweet or salt and cardiometabolic diseases: mediating effects of diet and weight status.Eur J Nutr. 2020 Feb; 59(1):249-261.EJ
Previous works have been suggested that individual sensory liking is a predictor of dietary intake and weight status, and may consequently influence development of cardiometabolic diseases (CMDs). We investigated the association between sensory liking for fat-and-salt, fat-and-sweet, sweet or salt and the onset of hypertension, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) over 6 years in adults, and the mediating effects of dietary intake and body mass index (BMI).
We examined the CMDs risk among 41,332 (for CVD and diabetes) and 37,936 (for hypertension) French adults (NutriNet-Santé cohort). Liking scores, individual characteristics, diet and anthropometry were assessed at baseline using questionnaires. Health events were collected during 6 years. Associations between sensory liking and CMDs risk, and the mediating effect of diet and BMI, were assessed using Cox proportional hazards models.
Sensory liking for fat-and-salt was associated with an increased risk of diabetes, hypertension and CVD [hazard ratios (HR) for 1-point increment of the sensory score: HR 1.30 (95% CI 1.18, 1.43), HR 1.08 (1.04, 1.13) and HR 1.10 (1.02, 1.19), respectively]. BMI and dietary intake both explained 93%, 98% and 70%, of the overall variation of liking for fat-and-salt liking in diabetes, hypertension and CVD, respectively. Liking for fat-and-sweet and liking for salt were also associated with an increased risk of diabetes [HR 1.09 (1.01, 1.17) and HR 1.09 (1.01, 1.18), respectively], whereas liking for sweet was associated with a decreased risk [HR 0.76 (0.69, 0.84)].
Higher liking for fat-and-salt is significantly associated with CMDs risk, largely explained by dietary intake and BMI. Our findings may help to guide effective targeted measures in prevention.