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Assessing Individuals' Exposure to Environmental Conditions Using Residence-based Measures, Activity Location-based Measures, and Activity Path-based Measures.
Epidemiology 2019; 30(2):166-176E

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Many approaches are available to researchers who wish to measure individuals' exposure to environmental conditions. Different approaches may yield different estimates of associations with health outcomes. Taking adolescents' exposure to alcohol outlets as an example, we aimed to (1) compare exposure measures and (2) assess whether exposure measures were differentially associated with alcohol consumption.

METHODS

We tracked 231 adolescents 14-16 years of age from the San Francisco Bay Area for 4 weeks in 2015/2016 using global positioning systems (GPS). Participants were texted ecologic momentary assessment surveys six times per week, including assessment of alcohol consumption. We used GPS data to calculate exposure to alcohol outlets using three approach types: residence-based (e.g., within the home census tract), activity location-based (e.g., within buffer distances of frequently attended places), and activity path-based (e.g., average outlets per hour within buffer distances of GPS route lines). Spearman correlations compared exposure measures, and separate Tobit models assessed associations with the proportion of ecologic momentary assessment responses positive for alcohol consumption.

RESULTS

Measures were mostly strongly correlated within approach types (ρ ≥ 0.7), but weakly (ρ < 0.3) to moderately (0.3 ≤ ρ < 0.7) correlated between approach types. Associations with alcohol consumption were mostly inconsistent within and between approach types. Some of the residence-based measures (e.g., census tract: β = 8.3, 95% CI = 2.8, 13.8), none of the activity location-based approaches, and most of the activity path-based approaches (e.g., outlet-hours per hour, 100 m buffer: β = 8.3, 95% CI = 3.3, 13.3) were associated with alcohol consumption.

CONCLUSIONS

Methodologic decisions regarding measurement of exposure to environmental conditions may affect study results.

Authors+Show Affiliations

From the Department of Epidemiology, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, NY. Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.Prevention Research Center, Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation, Berkeley, CA.Prevention Research Center, Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation, Berkeley, CA.Prevention Research Center, Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation, Berkeley, CA.Department of Pediatrics, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN.Prevention Research Center, Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation, Berkeley, CA.Department of Biostatistics, Epidemiology and Informatics, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

Language

eng

PubMed ID

30721163

Citation

Morrison, Christopher N., et al. "Assessing Individuals' Exposure to Environmental Conditions Using Residence-based Measures, Activity Location-based Measures, and Activity Path-based Measures." Epidemiology (Cambridge, Mass.), vol. 30, no. 2, 2019, pp. 166-176.
Morrison CN, Byrnes HF, Miller BA, et al. Assessing Individuals' Exposure to Environmental Conditions Using Residence-based Measures, Activity Location-based Measures, and Activity Path-based Measures. Epidemiology. 2019;30(2):166-176.
Morrison, C. N., Byrnes, H. F., Miller, B. A., Kaner, E., Wiehe, S. E., Ponicki, W. R., & Wiebe, D. J. (2019). Assessing Individuals' Exposure to Environmental Conditions Using Residence-based Measures, Activity Location-based Measures, and Activity Path-based Measures. Epidemiology (Cambridge, Mass.), 30(2), pp. 166-176. doi:10.1097/EDE.0000000000000940.
Morrison CN, et al. Assessing Individuals' Exposure to Environmental Conditions Using Residence-based Measures, Activity Location-based Measures, and Activity Path-based Measures. Epidemiology. 2019;30(2):166-176. PubMed PMID: 30721163.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Assessing Individuals' Exposure to Environmental Conditions Using Residence-based Measures, Activity Location-based Measures, and Activity Path-based Measures. AU - Morrison,Christopher N, AU - Byrnes,Hilary F, AU - Miller,Brenda A, AU - Kaner,Emily, AU - Wiehe,Sarah E, AU - Ponicki,William R, AU - Wiebe,Douglas J, PY - 2020/03/01/pmc-release PY - 2019/2/6/entrez PY - 2019/2/6/pubmed PY - 2019/5/21/medline SP - 166 EP - 176 JF - Epidemiology (Cambridge, Mass.) JO - Epidemiology VL - 30 IS - 2 N2 - BACKGROUND: Many approaches are available to researchers who wish to measure individuals' exposure to environmental conditions. Different approaches may yield different estimates of associations with health outcomes. Taking adolescents' exposure to alcohol outlets as an example, we aimed to (1) compare exposure measures and (2) assess whether exposure measures were differentially associated with alcohol consumption. METHODS: We tracked 231 adolescents 14-16 years of age from the San Francisco Bay Area for 4 weeks in 2015/2016 using global positioning systems (GPS). Participants were texted ecologic momentary assessment surveys six times per week, including assessment of alcohol consumption. We used GPS data to calculate exposure to alcohol outlets using three approach types: residence-based (e.g., within the home census tract), activity location-based (e.g., within buffer distances of frequently attended places), and activity path-based (e.g., average outlets per hour within buffer distances of GPS route lines). Spearman correlations compared exposure measures, and separate Tobit models assessed associations with the proportion of ecologic momentary assessment responses positive for alcohol consumption. RESULTS: Measures were mostly strongly correlated within approach types (ρ ≥ 0.7), but weakly (ρ < 0.3) to moderately (0.3 ≤ ρ < 0.7) correlated between approach types. Associations with alcohol consumption were mostly inconsistent within and between approach types. Some of the residence-based measures (e.g., census tract: β = 8.3, 95% CI = 2.8, 13.8), none of the activity location-based approaches, and most of the activity path-based approaches (e.g., outlet-hours per hour, 100 m buffer: β = 8.3, 95% CI = 3.3, 13.3) were associated with alcohol consumption. CONCLUSIONS: Methodologic decisions regarding measurement of exposure to environmental conditions may affect study results. SN - 1531-5487 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/30721163/Assessing_Individuals'_Exposure_to_Environmental_Conditions_Using_Residence-based_Measures,_Activity_Location-based_Measures,_and_Activity_Path-based_Measures L2 - http://Insights.ovid.com/pubmed?pmid=30721163 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -