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Biogenic amines profile and concentration in commercial milks for infants and young children.

Abstract

Commercial milks for infants and young children (CMIYC) received much attention during last years for their impact on the nutritional status, health and development of the new-born and babies. Among possible contaminants contained in these foods, biogenic amines (BAs) have rarely been determined although they can exert toxic effects in humans if ingested at high concentrations. Spermine, spermidine, putrescine, histamine, tyramine, β-phenylethylamine and cadaverine have been quantified in CMIYC samples by LC-UV after derivatisation with dansyl-chloride. Once optimised in terms of linearity (R2 ≥ 0.989), recovery percentages (92.9-97.3), LOD (0.2-0.4 μg g-1 or 0.03-0.05 μg mL-1 depending on the samples), LOQ (0.5-1.0 μg g-1 and 0.08-0.13 μg mL-1 depending on the samples) and repeatability (0.1-0.2 intra-day; 0.2-0.4 inter-day), the method has been applied to real samples. Very low total BAs concentrations have been found in reconstituted (1.18-3.12 mg L-1) and liquid milks (0.33-2.30 mg L-1), with different biogenic amine profiles and distributions. A risk assessment based on the available information regarding Acute Reference Doses of histamine and tyramine, as well as the application of common Biogenic Amine Indexes, showed that none of the analysed samples represented a possible risk for babies, also considering a worst case evaluation. These findings confirmed the strict safety and quality protocols adopted during the production of CMIYC. Chemical compounds studied in this article: Ammonium chloride (PubChem CID: 25517); Cadaverine hydrochloride (PubChem CID: 5351467); Hydrochloridric acid (PubChem CID: 313); Histamine dihydrochloride (PubChem CID: 5818); Phenylethylamine hydrochloride (PubChem CID: 9075); Putrescine dihydrochloride (PubChem CID: 9532); Sodium hydroxide (PubChem CID: 14798); Spermine tetrahydrochloride (PubChem CID: 1103); Spermidine trihydrochloride (PubChem CID: 1102); Tyramine hydrochloride (PubChem CID: 66449).

Authors+Show Affiliations

a Department of Pharmacy, Health and Nutritional Sciences , University of Calabria , Arcavacata di Rende CS , Italy.a Department of Pharmacy, Health and Nutritional Sciences , University of Calabria , Arcavacata di Rende CS , Italy.a Department of Pharmacy, Health and Nutritional Sciences , University of Calabria , Arcavacata di Rende CS , Italy.a Department of Pharmacy, Health and Nutritional Sciences , University of Calabria , Arcavacata di Rende CS , Italy.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

30722764

Citation

Spizzirri, U Gianfranco, et al. "Biogenic Amines Profile and Concentration in Commercial Milks for Infants and Young Children." Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment, vol. 36, no. 3, 2019, pp. 337-349.
Spizzirri UG, Puoci F, Iemma F, et al. Biogenic amines profile and concentration in commercial milks for infants and young children. Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess. 2019;36(3):337-349.
Spizzirri, U. G., Puoci, F., Iemma, F., & Restuccia, D. (2019). Biogenic amines profile and concentration in commercial milks for infants and young children. Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment, 36(3), 337-349. https://doi.org/10.1080/19440049.2018.1563306
Spizzirri UG, et al. Biogenic Amines Profile and Concentration in Commercial Milks for Infants and Young Children. Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess. 2019;36(3):337-349. PubMed PMID: 30722764.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Biogenic amines profile and concentration in commercial milks for infants and young children. AU - Spizzirri,U Gianfranco, AU - Puoci,Francesco, AU - Iemma,Francesca, AU - Restuccia,Donatella, Y1 - 2019/02/05/ PY - 2019/2/7/pubmed PY - 2019/4/16/medline PY - 2019/2/7/entrez KW - Biogenic amines KW - follow-up formula KW - food quality KW - food safety KW - growing-up/toddler milks KW - infant formula SP - 337 EP - 349 JF - Food additives & contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, analysis, control, exposure & risk assessment JO - Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess VL - 36 IS - 3 N2 - Commercial milks for infants and young children (CMIYC) received much attention during last years for their impact on the nutritional status, health and development of the new-born and babies. Among possible contaminants contained in these foods, biogenic amines (BAs) have rarely been determined although they can exert toxic effects in humans if ingested at high concentrations. Spermine, spermidine, putrescine, histamine, tyramine, β-phenylethylamine and cadaverine have been quantified in CMIYC samples by LC-UV after derivatisation with dansyl-chloride. Once optimised in terms of linearity (R2 ≥ 0.989), recovery percentages (92.9-97.3), LOD (0.2-0.4 μg g-1 or 0.03-0.05 μg mL-1 depending on the samples), LOQ (0.5-1.0 μg g-1 and 0.08-0.13 μg mL-1 depending on the samples) and repeatability (0.1-0.2 intra-day; 0.2-0.4 inter-day), the method has been applied to real samples. Very low total BAs concentrations have been found in reconstituted (1.18-3.12 mg L-1) and liquid milks (0.33-2.30 mg L-1), with different biogenic amine profiles and distributions. A risk assessment based on the available information regarding Acute Reference Doses of histamine and tyramine, as well as the application of common Biogenic Amine Indexes, showed that none of the analysed samples represented a possible risk for babies, also considering a worst case evaluation. These findings confirmed the strict safety and quality protocols adopted during the production of CMIYC. Chemical compounds studied in this article: Ammonium chloride (PubChem CID: 25517); Cadaverine hydrochloride (PubChem CID: 5351467); Hydrochloridric acid (PubChem CID: 313); Histamine dihydrochloride (PubChem CID: 5818); Phenylethylamine hydrochloride (PubChem CID: 9075); Putrescine dihydrochloride (PubChem CID: 9532); Sodium hydroxide (PubChem CID: 14798); Spermine tetrahydrochloride (PubChem CID: 1103); Spermidine trihydrochloride (PubChem CID: 1102); Tyramine hydrochloride (PubChem CID: 66449). SN - 1944-0057 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/30722764/Biogenic_amines_profile_and_concentration_in_commercial_milks_for_infants_and_young_children_ L2 - http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/19440049.2018.1563306 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -
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