Biogenic amines profile and concentration in commercial milks for infants and young children.Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess. 2019 Mar; 36(3):337-349.FA
Commercial milks for infants and young children (CMIYC) received much attention during last years for their impact on the nutritional status, health and development of the new-born and babies. Among possible contaminants contained in these foods, biogenic amines (BAs) have rarely been determined although they can exert toxic effects in humans if ingested at high concentrations. Spermine, spermidine, putrescine, histamine, tyramine, β-phenylethylamine and cadaverine have been quantified in CMIYC samples by LC-UV after derivatisation with dansyl-chloride. Once optimised in terms of linearity (R2 ≥ 0.989), recovery percentages (92.9-97.3), LOD (0.2-0.4 μg g-1 or 0.03-0.05 μg mL-1 depending on the samples), LOQ (0.5-1.0 μg g-1 and 0.08-0.13 μg mL-1 depending on the samples) and repeatability (0.1-0.2 intra-day; 0.2-0.4 inter-day), the method has been applied to real samples. Very low total BAs concentrations have been found in reconstituted (1.18-3.12 mg L-1) and liquid milks (0.33-2.30 mg L-1), with different biogenic amine profiles and distributions. A risk assessment based on the available information regarding Acute Reference Doses of histamine and tyramine, as well as the application of common Biogenic Amine Indexes, showed that none of the analysed samples represented a possible risk for babies, also considering a worst case evaluation. These findings confirmed the strict safety and quality protocols adopted during the production of CMIYC. Chemical compounds studied in this article: Ammonium chloride (PubChem CID: 25517); Cadaverine hydrochloride (PubChem CID: 5351467); Hydrochloridric acid (PubChem CID: 313); Histamine dihydrochloride (PubChem CID: 5818); Phenylethylamine hydrochloride (PubChem CID: 9075); Putrescine dihydrochloride (PubChem CID: 9532); Sodium hydroxide (PubChem CID: 14798); Spermine tetrahydrochloride (PubChem CID: 1103); Spermidine trihydrochloride (PubChem CID: 1102); Tyramine hydrochloride (PubChem CID: 66449).