Changes in Bread Quality, Antioxidant Activity, and Phenolic Acid Composition of Wheats During Early-Stage Germination.J Food Sci. 2019 Mar; 84(3):457-465.JF
This study reported changes in baking properties, total phenolic content (TPC), antioxidant activity, and phenolic acid composition of three hard red winter wheat varieties during the early stage of seed germination. The wheats were sprouted at 30 °C and 95% relative humidity to achieve different germination levels based on falling number ranges (550 s for control flour; 350 s [low], 250 s [medium], and 120 s [high] for sprouted flours, respectively). Average germination times were 7, 8, and 10 hr for the low, medium, and high germinated samples, respectively. Most baking properties of sprouted whole flour were comparable to the control flour. However, TPC, flavonoid content, phenolic acids, and antioxidant activity of sprouted flour were lower than the control flour. To our knowledge, this is the first study that reported both baking properties and antioxidant potential of sprouted whole wheat flour from early-stage germination. The study deepens the understanding of seed germination and the potential use of sprouted flour in baking industry. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: This study evaluates the baking quality and nutraceutical value of sprouted whole wheat flour, which are key factors determining the application of sprouted flour in the baking industry. The results will contribute to the production of quality bakery products with enhanced nutraceutical benefits.