Effect of percolation and chemical form on Pb bioavailability and toxicity to the soil invertebrate Enchytraeus crypticus in freshly spiked and aged soils.Environ Pollut. 2019 Apr; 247:866-873.EP
In standard terrestrial ecotoxicological tests, soils usually are spiked with highly soluble metal salts leading to overestimation of bioavailability and introducing counterions that may contribute to toxicity. Leaching is suggested as an efficient method to avoid the effects of the associated counterions. The present study aimed at investigating the effects of leaching on the bioavailability and toxicity of Pb(NO3)2 and PbO to the potworm Enchytraeus crypticus in LUFA 2.2 soil freshly spiked or after 18 months ageing. Percolation decreased porewater Pb concentrations as well as the toxicity of both Pb forms. The influence of percolation differed between the two Pb forms and between freshly spiked and aged soils. Percolation slightly increased LC50s based on total soil Pb concentrations for Pb(NO3)2, but not for PbO, and only affected Pb toxicity to enchytraeid reproduction in freshly spiked soils. The differences in Pb uptake in E. crypticus and toxicity between the two Pb forms as well as between different treatments could be minimized by relating them to 0.01 M CaCl2-extractable concentrations. In addition, body Pb concentrations could well explain enchytraeid survival across all soils and treatments, indicating its suitability as a good proxy for Pb toxicity in soil.