Atypical posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome in a noncompliant hemodialysis patient: Case report and literature review.Hemodial Int. 2019 10; 23(4):E100-E103.HI
Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a reversible vasogenic brain edema in patients who present with seizure, headache, visual disturbance, and altered mental status, and a characteristic neuroimaging profile. Although PRES predominantly affects the bilateral parieto-occipital areas, involvement of the frontal and temporal lobes, basal ganglia, brainstem, and cerebellum is not uncommon. Isolated involvement of the brainstem and cerebellum sparing the parieto-occipital lobe is rarely reported. Here, we describe a 47-year-old man with end-stage renal disease on chronic hemodialysis who presented with prominent hypertension and coma after missing three dialysis sessions. On examination, there was paucity of focal neurologic signs. Diagnosis of PRES was based on brain magnetic resonance imaging findings that were consistent with vasogenic edema of the pons and cerebellum without involvement of other areas. With antihypertensive therapy and intense ultrafiltration during hemodialysis, the patient's blood pressure and consciousness returned to normal, along with complete resolution of the abnormal imaging findings. This case stresses that noncompliance with dialysis should be considered a risk factor for PRES. This case is considered relative to the available literature on three patients with brainstem variant of PRES.