Creation and validation of three-dimensional printed models for basic nasal endoscopic training.Int Forum Allergy Rhinol. 2019 06; 9(6):695-701.IF
Three-dimensional (3D) printed models have been shown to be promising in surgical training in rhinology. The objectives of this study were to develop a set of 3D-printed models including the pediatric and adult nasal cavity, and the postsurgical paranasal sinuses, and to assess the face and content validity in endoscopic training.
The computed tomography (CT) data of a pediatric patient without nasal disorders and an adult patient with nasal septal deviation were selected to produce the models of the pediatric and adult nasal cavity, and the CT data of an adult patient who underwent endoscopic sinus surgery 4 months ago was chosen to create the paranasal sinus model. After the models were printed by our desktop-level 3D printer, 5 rhinologists used the 5-point Likert scales to evaluate the fidelity and utility. Additionally, a group of prespecified tasks were completed by the rhinologists and 5 residents respectively for supplementary content validation. The difference of time used in completing each task was analyzed by Mann-Whitney U test.
All the models were prototyped in 24 hours, and the total cost for each model was less than 100 CNY (15 USD). The overall scores for fidelity and usefulness in endoscopic training were above 4.0. The experts accomplished all tasks using significantly less time than the residents (all p < 0.05).
The models of nasal cavities and paranasal sinuses made by our desktop-level 3D printer are high-fidelity, low-cost, and useful in training basic endoscopic skills.