Removal of Protein-Bound Uremic Toxins during Hemodialysis Using a Binding Competitor.Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2019 03 07; 14(3):394-402.CJ
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES
Current hemodialysis techniques fail to efficiently remove the protein-bound uremic toxins p-cresyl sulfate and indoxyl sulfate due to their high degree of albumin binding. Ibuprofen, which shares the same primary albumin binding site with p-cresyl sulfate and indoxyl sulfate, can be infused during hemodialysis to displace these toxins, thereby augmenting their removal.
DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS
We infused 800 mg ibuprofen into the arterial bloodline between minutes 21 and 40 of a conventional 4-hour high-flux hemodialysis treatment. We measured arterial, venous, and dialysate outlet concentrations of indoxyl sulfate, p-cresyl sulfate, tryptophan, ibuprofen, urea, and creatinine before, during, and after the ibuprofen infusion. We report clearances of p-cresyl sulfate and indoxyl sulfate before and during ibuprofen infusion and dialysate concentrations of protein-bound uremic toxins normalized to each patient's average preinfusion concentrations.
We studied 18 patients on maintenance hemodialysis: age 36±11 years old, ten women, and mean vintage of 37±37 months. Compared with during the preinfusion period, the median (interquartile range) clearances of indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate increased during ibuprofen infusion from 6.0 (6.5) to 20.2 (27.1) ml/min and from 4.4 (6.7) to 14.9 (27.1) ml/min (each P<0.001), respectively. Relative median (interquartile range) protein-bound uremic toxin dialysate outlet levels increased from preinfusion 1.0 (reference) to 2.4 (1.2) for indoxyl sulfate and to 2.4 (1.0) for p-cresyl sulfate (each P<0.001). Although median serum post- and predialyzer levels in the preinfusion period were similar, infusion led to a marked drop in serum postdialyzer levels for both indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate (-1.0 and -0.3 mg/dl, respectively; each P<0.001). The removal of the nonprotein-bound solutes creatinine and urea was not increased by the ibuprofen infusion.
Infusion of ibuprofen into the arterial bloodline during hemodialysis significantly increases the dialytic removal of indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate and thereby, leads to greater reduction in their serum levels.