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Transformative learning as pedagogy for the health professions: a scoping review.
Med Educ 2019; 53(6):547-558ME

Abstract

CONTEXT

Transformative learning (TL) has been described as learning that challenges established perspectives, leading to new ways of being in the world. As a learning theory it has resonated with educators globally, including those in the health professions. Described as a complex metatheory, TL has evolved over time, eliciting divergent interpretations of the construct. This scoping review provides a comprehensive synthesis of how TL is currently represented in the health professions education literature, including how it influences curricular activities, to inform its future application in the field.

METHODS

Arksey and O'Malley's six-step framework was adopted to review the period from 2006 to May 2018. A total of 10 bibliographic databases were searched, generating 1532 potential studies. After several rounds of review, first of abstracts and then of full texts, 99 studies were mapped by two independent reviewers onto the internally developed data extraction sheet. Descriptive information about included studies was aggregated. Discursive data were subjected to content analysis.

RESULTS

A mix of conceptual and empirical research papers, which used a range of qualitative methodologies, were included. Studies from the USA, the UK and Australia were most prevalent. Insights relating to how opportunities for TL were created, how it manifests and influences behaviour, as well as how it is experienced, demonstrated much congruency. Conceptions of TL were seen to be clustered around the work of key theorists.

CONCLUSIONS

The training of health professionals often takes place in unfamiliar settings where students are encouraged to be active participants in providing care. This increases the opportunity for exposure to learning experiences that are potentially transformative, allowing for a pedagogy of uncertainty that acknowledges the complexity of the world we live in and questions what we believe we know about it. TL provides educators in the health professions with a theoretical lens through which they can view such student learning.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Centre for Health Professions Education, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa.Yale School of Medicine, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, USA.Departments of Medicine and Epidemiology, David Geffen School of Medicine and Fielding School of Public Health, University of California, Los Angeles, California, USA.Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, The University of Western Australia, Crawley, Western Australia, Australia.Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben Gurion University, Beer Sheva, Israel.Centre for Health Professions Education, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa.Centre for Health Professions Education, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa.Division of Infectious Diseases, University of California-San Francisco Medical Center, San Francisco, California, USA.Centre for Health Professions Education, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa.Cushing/Whitney Medical Library, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA.Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK.No affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

30761602

Citation

Van Schalkwyk, Susan C., et al. "Transformative Learning as Pedagogy for the Health Professions: a Scoping Review." Medical Education, vol. 53, no. 6, 2019, pp. 547-558.
Van Schalkwyk SC, Hafler J, Brewer TF, et al. Transformative learning as pedagogy for the health professions: a scoping review. Med Educ. 2019;53(6):547-558.
Van Schalkwyk, S. C., Hafler, J., Brewer, T. F., Maley, M. A., Margolis, C., McNamee, L., ... Davies, D. (2019). Transformative learning as pedagogy for the health professions: a scoping review. Medical Education, 53(6), pp. 547-558. doi:10.1111/medu.13804.
Van Schalkwyk SC, et al. Transformative Learning as Pedagogy for the Health Professions: a Scoping Review. Med Educ. 2019;53(6):547-558. PubMed PMID: 30761602.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Transformative learning as pedagogy for the health professions: a scoping review. AU - Van Schalkwyk,Susan C, AU - Hafler,Janet, AU - Brewer,Timothy F, AU - Maley,Moira A, AU - Margolis,Carmi, AU - McNamee,Lakshini, AU - Meyer,Ilse, AU - Peluso,Michael J, AU - Schmutz,Ana Ms, AU - Spak,Judy M, AU - Davies,David, AU - ,, Y1 - 2019/02/14/ PY - 2018/07/31/received PY - 2018/10/16/revised PY - 2018/12/13/accepted PY - 2019/2/15/pubmed PY - 2019/2/15/medline PY - 2019/2/15/entrez SP - 547 EP - 558 JF - Medical education JO - Med Educ VL - 53 IS - 6 N2 - CONTEXT: Transformative learning (TL) has been described as learning that challenges established perspectives, leading to new ways of being in the world. As a learning theory it has resonated with educators globally, including those in the health professions. Described as a complex metatheory, TL has evolved over time, eliciting divergent interpretations of the construct. This scoping review provides a comprehensive synthesis of how TL is currently represented in the health professions education literature, including how it influences curricular activities, to inform its future application in the field. METHODS: Arksey and O'Malley's six-step framework was adopted to review the period from 2006 to May 2018. A total of 10 bibliographic databases were searched, generating 1532 potential studies. After several rounds of review, first of abstracts and then of full texts, 99 studies were mapped by two independent reviewers onto the internally developed data extraction sheet. Descriptive information about included studies was aggregated. Discursive data were subjected to content analysis. RESULTS: A mix of conceptual and empirical research papers, which used a range of qualitative methodologies, were included. Studies from the USA, the UK and Australia were most prevalent. Insights relating to how opportunities for TL were created, how it manifests and influences behaviour, as well as how it is experienced, demonstrated much congruency. Conceptions of TL were seen to be clustered around the work of key theorists. CONCLUSIONS: The training of health professionals often takes place in unfamiliar settings where students are encouraged to be active participants in providing care. This increases the opportunity for exposure to learning experiences that are potentially transformative, allowing for a pedagogy of uncertainty that acknowledges the complexity of the world we live in and questions what we believe we know about it. TL provides educators in the health professions with a theoretical lens through which they can view such student learning. SN - 1365-2923 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/30761602/Transformative_learning_as_pedagogy_for_the_health_professions:_a_scoping_review L2 - https://doi.org/10.1111/medu.13804 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -