Anti-proliferative and anti-migratory effects of Scutellaria strigillosa Hemsley extracts against vascular smooth muscle cells.J Ethnopharmacol 2019; 235:155-163JE
The abnormal increase in vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation and migration are critical events in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) including restenosis and atherosclerosis. The dried roots of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi (common name: Huangqin in China) have been confirmed to possess beneficial effects on CVD by clinical and modern pharmacological studies. Flavonoids in Huangqin exert anti-proliferative and anti-migratory effects. Similar to Huangqin, Scutellaria strigillosa Hemsley (SSH) has been used to clear heat and damp and is especially rich in flavonoids including wogonin, wogonoside, baicalein, and baicalin. However, there have been few of reports about pharmacological activities of SSH.
AIM OF THE STUDY
To investigate the anti-proliferative and anti-migratory properties of Scutellaria strigillosa Hemsley extract (SSHE) in vitro and in vivo and explore its possible mechanism of action.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The chemical constituents of SSHE were analyzed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Triple-TOF-MS/MS). Cell proliferation and migration were investigated using BrdU incorporation assay and cell scratch test, respectively. The protein expression was determined by western blotting. In vivo, we established an artery ligation model of C57BL/6 mice and orally administered them with 50 or 100 mg/kg/day of SSHE. The carotid arteries were harvested and the intima-media thickness was examined 28 days post-ligation.
Twelve compounds were identified and tentatively characterized. SSHE significantly inhibited the VSMC proliferation and migration stimulated by PDGF-BB and decreased the relative protein expression of regulatory signaling intermediates. Furthermore, the expression of SM22α was significantly elevated in SSHE-pretreated VSMCs, whereas knockdown of SM22α impaired the PDGF-BB-induced proliferation and migration arrest. Meanwhile, both ROS generation and the phosphorylation of ERK decreased in SSHE-pretreated VSMCs. In carotid artery ligation mice model, SSHE treatment significantly inhibited neointimal hyperplasia.
SSHE significantly inhibited the PDGF-BB-induced VSMC proliferation, migration, and neointimal hyperplasia of carotid artery caused by ligation. Upregulation of SM22α expression, inhibition of ROS generation and ERK phosphorylation were, at least, partly responsible for the effects of SSHE on VSMCs.