First Report of Fusarium Wilt Caused by Fusarium oxysporum on Strawberry in Spain.Plant Dis. 2009 Mar; 93(3):323.PD
In the spring of 2007, wilted and dead strawberry plants (Fragaria × ananassa Duch. cvs. Camarosa and Ventana) were observed in a soilless culture system in Huelva, southwestern Spain. Approximately 8% of the plants in the field died. Isolations from necrotic crowns and roots and necrotic flowers were made on potato dextrose agar after disinfestation in 0.6% NaOCl for 30 s. Colonies with light purple mycelia and beige or orange reverse colony colors developed after 9 days of incubation at 25°C. Colonies produced abundant microconidia, macroconidia, and chlamydospores. Microconidia were hyaline and oval-ellipsoid to cylindrical (5.9 to 9.2 × 2.1 to 3.4 μm). Macroconidia were 3 to 5 septate and fusoid-subulate with a pedicellate base (28.8 to 37.3 × 3.2 to 4.3 μm). Morphology and growth matched descriptions of Fusarium oxysporum Schlechtend emend. Snyder & Hansen (2). A PCR assay for amplification of r-DNA using primers PFO2 and PFO3 established the identity of the isolate as F. oxysporum (1). To confirm the pathogenicity of the fungus, roots of 30-day-old strawberry cvs. Camarosa and Ventana (20 plants each) were inoculated by dipping the roots into a conidial suspension (107 conidia per ml) for 15 min. The inoculated plants were transplanted into plastic pots containing sterilized peat and maintained at 25°C and 100% relative humidity in a growth chamber with a daily 12-h photoperiod of fluorescent light. The pathogenicity test was conducted twice. Within 30 days, all inoculated plants developed wilt symptoms similar to that observed in the field and eventually 75% of the plants died. No symptoms were observed on plants dipped in distilled water. The fungus was successfully reisolated from crowns, roots, and necrotic flowers, fulfilling Koch's postulates. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the occurrence of Fusarium wilt caused by F. oxysporum on strawberry plants in Spain. References: (1) V. Edel et al. Mycol. Res. 104:518, 2000. (2) W. C. Snyder and H. N. Hansen. Am. J. Bot. 27:64, 1940.