Functional brain connectivity in electrical status epilepticus in sleep.Epileptic Disord. 2019 Feb 01; 21(1):55-64.ED
Electrical status epilepticus in sleep (ESES) is an age-related, self-limited epileptic encephalopathy. The syndrome is characterized by cognitive and behavioral abnormalities and a specific EEG pattern of continuous spikes and waves during slow-wave sleep. While spikes and sharp waves are known to result in transient cognitive impairment during learning and memory tasks performed during the waking state, the effect of epileptiform discharges during sleep on cognition and behavior is unclear. There is increasing evidence that abnormalities of coherence, a measure of the consistency of the phase difference between two EEG signals when compared over time, is an important feature of brain oscillations and plays a role in cognition and behavior. The objective of this study was to determine whether coherence of EEG activity is altered during slow-wave sleep in children with ESES when compared to typically developing children. We examined coherence during epochs of ESES versus epochs when ESES was not present. In addition, we compared coherence during slow-wave sleep between typically developing children and children with ESES. ESES was associated with remarkably high coherences at all bandwidths and most electrode pairs. While the high coherence was largely attributed to the spikes and spike-and-wave discharge, activity between spikes and spike-and-wave discharge also demonstrated high coherence. This study indicates that EEG coherence during ESES is relatively high. Whether these increases in coherence correlate with the cognitive and behavioral abnormalities seen in children with this EEG pattern remains to be determined.