Prediction of small-for-gestational-age neonates at 35-37 weeks' gestation: contribution of maternal factors and growth velocity between 20 and 36 weeks.Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2019 Apr; 53(4):488-495.UO
To evaluate the performance of ultrasonographic estimated fetal weight (EFW) at 35 + 0 to 36 + 6 weeks' gestation in the prediction of delivery of a small-for-gestational-age (SGA) neonate and assess the additive value of, first, maternal risk factors and, second, fetal growth velocity between 20 and 36 weeks' gestation in improving such prediction.
This was a prospective study of 44 043 singleton pregnancies undergoing routine ultrasound examination at 19 + 0 to 23 + 6 and at 35 + 0 to 36 + 6 weeks' gestation. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to determine whether addition of maternal risk factors and growth velocity, the latter defined as the difference in EFW Z-score or fetal abdominal circumference (AC) Z-score between the third- and second-trimester scans divided by the time interval between the scans, improved the performance of EFW Z-score at 35 + 0 to 36 + 6 weeks in the prediction of delivery of a SGA neonate with birth weight < 10th and < 3rd percentiles within 2 weeks and at any stage after assessment.
Screening by EFW Z-score at 35 + 0 to 36 + 6 weeks' gestation predicted 63.4% (95% CI, 62.0-64.7%) of neonates with birth weight < 10th percentile and 74.2% (95% CI, 72.2-76.1%) of neonates with birth weight < 3rd percentile born at any stage after assessment, at a screen-positive rate of 10%. The respective values for SGA neonates born within 2 weeks after assessment were 76.8% (95% CI, 74.4-79.0%) and 81.3% (95% CI, 78.2-84.0%). For a desired 90% detection rate of SGA neonate delivered at any stage after assessment, the necessary screen-positive rate would be 33.7% for SGA < 10th percentile and 24.4% for SGA < 3rd percentile. Multivariable logistic regression analysis demonstrated that, in the prediction of a SGA neonate with birth weight < 10th and < 3rd percentiles, there was a significant contribution from EFW Z-score at 35 + 0 to 36 + 6 weeks' gestation, maternal risk factors and AC growth velocity, but not EFW growth velocity. However, the area under the receiver-operating characteristics curve for prediction of delivery of a SGA neonate by screening with maternal risk factors and EFW Z-score was not improved by addition of AC growth velocity.
Screening for SGA neonates by EFW at 35 + 0 to 36 + 6 weeks' gestation and use of the 10th percentile as the cut-off predicts 63% of affected neonates. Prediction of 90% of SGA neonates necessitates classification of about 35% of the population as being screen positive. The predictive performance of EFW is not improved by addition of estimated growth velocity between the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. Copyright © 2019 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.