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Additional sauropod dinosaur material from the Callovian Oxford Clay Formation, Peterborough, UK: evidence for higher sauropod diversity.
PeerJ. 2019; 7:e6404.P

Abstract

Four isolated sauropod axial elements from the Oxford Clay Formation (Callovian, Middle Jurassic) of Peterborough, UK, are described. Two associated posterior dorsal vertebrae show a dorsoventrally elongated centrum and short neural arch, and nutrient or pneumatic foramina, most likely belonging to a non-neosauropod eusauropod, but showing ambiguous non-neosauropod eusauropod and neosauropod affinities. An isolated anterior caudal vertebra displays a ventral keel, a 'shoulder' indicating a wing-like transverse process, along with a possible prespinal lamina. This, together with an overall high complexity of the anterior caudal transverse process (ACTP) complex, indicates that this caudal could have belonged to a neosauropod. A second isolated middle-posterior caudal vertebra also shows some diagnostic features, despite the neural spine and neural arch not being preserved and the neurocentral sutures being unfused. The positioning of the neurocentral sutures on the anterior one third of the centrum indicates a middle caudal position, and the presence of faint ventrolateral crests, as well as a rhomboid anterior articulation surface, suggest neosauropod affinities. The presence of possible nutrient foramina are only tentative evidence of a neosauropod origin, as they are also found in Late Jurassic non-neosauropod eusauropods. As the caudals from the two other known sauropods from the Peterborough Oxford Clay, Cetiosauriscus stewarti and an indeterminate non-neosauropod eusauropod, do not show the features seen on either of the new elements described, both isolated caudals indicate a higher sauropod species diversity in the faunal assemblage than previously recognised. An exploratory phylogenetic analysis using characters from all four isolated elements supports a basal neosauropod placement for the anterior caudal, and a diplodocid origin for the middle caudal. The dorsal vertebrae are an unstable OTU, and therefore remain part of an indeterminate eusauropod of uncertain affinities. Together with Cetiosauriscus, and other material assigned to different sauropod groups, this study indicates the presence of a higher sauropod biodiversity in the Oxford Clay Formation than previously recognised. This study shows that it is still beneficial to examine isolated elements, as these may be indicators for higher species richness in deposits that are otherwise poor in terrestrial fauna.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Staatliche Naturwissenschaftliche Sammlungen Bayerns (SNSB), Bayerische Staatssamlung für Paläontologie und Geologie, Munich, Germany. Faculty of Geosciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands.New Walk Museum and Art Gallery, Leicester Arts and Museums Service, Leicester, United Kingdom. University of Leicester Centre for Palaeobiology Research, School of Geography, Geology and the Environment, University of Leicester, Leicester, United Kingdom.Staatliche Naturwissenschaftliche Sammlungen Bayerns (SNSB), Bayerische Staatssamlung für Paläontologie und Geologie, Munich, Germany. Department of Natural Sciences, National Museums Scotland, Edinburgh, Scotland. Vivacity-Peterborough Museum, Peterborough, United Kingdom.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

30783572

Citation

Holwerda, Femke M., et al. "Additional Sauropod Dinosaur Material From the Callovian Oxford Clay Formation, Peterborough, UK: Evidence for Higher Sauropod Diversity." PeerJ, vol. 7, 2019, pp. e6404.
Holwerda FM, Evans M, Liston JJ. Additional sauropod dinosaur material from the Callovian Oxford Clay Formation, Peterborough, UK: evidence for higher sauropod diversity. PeerJ. 2019;7:e6404.
Holwerda, F. M., Evans, M., & Liston, J. J. (2019). Additional sauropod dinosaur material from the Callovian Oxford Clay Formation, Peterborough, UK: evidence for higher sauropod diversity. PeerJ, 7, e6404. https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.6404
Holwerda FM, Evans M, Liston JJ. Additional Sauropod Dinosaur Material From the Callovian Oxford Clay Formation, Peterborough, UK: Evidence for Higher Sauropod Diversity. PeerJ. 2019;7:e6404. PubMed PMID: 30783572.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Additional sauropod dinosaur material from the Callovian Oxford Clay Formation, Peterborough, UK: evidence for higher sauropod diversity. AU - Holwerda,Femke M, AU - Evans,Mark, AU - Liston,Jeff J, Y1 - 2019/02/14/ PY - 2018/03/17/received PY - 2019/01/07/accepted PY - 2019/2/21/entrez PY - 2019/2/21/pubmed PY - 2019/2/21/medline KW - Callovian KW - Caudal KW - Dorsal KW - Eusauropoda KW - Middle Jurassic KW - Neosauropoda KW - Oxford Clay Formation SP - e6404 EP - e6404 JF - PeerJ JO - PeerJ VL - 7 N2 - Four isolated sauropod axial elements from the Oxford Clay Formation (Callovian, Middle Jurassic) of Peterborough, UK, are described. Two associated posterior dorsal vertebrae show a dorsoventrally elongated centrum and short neural arch, and nutrient or pneumatic foramina, most likely belonging to a non-neosauropod eusauropod, but showing ambiguous non-neosauropod eusauropod and neosauropod affinities. An isolated anterior caudal vertebra displays a ventral keel, a 'shoulder' indicating a wing-like transverse process, along with a possible prespinal lamina. This, together with an overall high complexity of the anterior caudal transverse process (ACTP) complex, indicates that this caudal could have belonged to a neosauropod. A second isolated middle-posterior caudal vertebra also shows some diagnostic features, despite the neural spine and neural arch not being preserved and the neurocentral sutures being unfused. The positioning of the neurocentral sutures on the anterior one third of the centrum indicates a middle caudal position, and the presence of faint ventrolateral crests, as well as a rhomboid anterior articulation surface, suggest neosauropod affinities. The presence of possible nutrient foramina are only tentative evidence of a neosauropod origin, as they are also found in Late Jurassic non-neosauropod eusauropods. As the caudals from the two other known sauropods from the Peterborough Oxford Clay, Cetiosauriscus stewarti and an indeterminate non-neosauropod eusauropod, do not show the features seen on either of the new elements described, both isolated caudals indicate a higher sauropod species diversity in the faunal assemblage than previously recognised. An exploratory phylogenetic analysis using characters from all four isolated elements supports a basal neosauropod placement for the anterior caudal, and a diplodocid origin for the middle caudal. The dorsal vertebrae are an unstable OTU, and therefore remain part of an indeterminate eusauropod of uncertain affinities. Together with Cetiosauriscus, and other material assigned to different sauropod groups, this study indicates the presence of a higher sauropod biodiversity in the Oxford Clay Formation than previously recognised. This study shows that it is still beneficial to examine isolated elements, as these may be indicators for higher species richness in deposits that are otherwise poor in terrestrial fauna. SN - 2167-8359 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/30783572/Additional_sauropod_dinosaur_material_from_the_Callovian_Oxford_Clay_Formation_Peterborough_UK:_evidence_for_higher_sauropod_diversity_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.6404 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -
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