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Functional analysis of RIP toxins from the Drosophila endosymbiont Spiroplasma poulsonii.
BMC Microbiol. 2019 02 20; 19(1):46.BM

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Insects frequently live in close relationship with symbiotic bacteria that carry out beneficial functions for their host, like protection against parasites and viruses. However, in some cases, the mutualistic nature of such associations is put into question because of detrimental phenotypes caused by the symbiont. One example is the association between the vertically transmitted facultative endosymbiont Spiroplasma poulsonii and its natural host Drosophila melanogaster. Whereas S. poulsonii protects its host against parasitoid wasps and nematodes by the action of toxins from the family of Ribosome Inactivating Proteins (RIPs), the presence of S. poulsonii has been reported to reduce host's life span and to kill male embryos by a toxin called Spaid. In this work, we investigate the harmful effects of Spiroplasma RIPs on Drosophila in the absence of parasite infection.

RESULTS

We show that only two Spiroplasma RIPs (SpRIP1 and SpRIP2) among the five RIP genes encoded in the S. poulsonii genome are significantly expressed during the whole Drosophila life cycle. Heterologous expression of SpRIP1 and 2 in uninfected flies confirms their toxicity, as indicated by a reduction of Drosophila lifespan and hemocyte number. We also show that RIPs can cause the death of some embryos, including females.

CONCLUSION

Our results indicate that RIPs released by S. poulsonii contribute to the reduction of host lifespan and embryo mortality. This suggests that SpRIPs may impact the insect-symbiont homeostasis beyond their protective function against parasites.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Global Health Institute, School of Life Science, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Lausanne, Switzerland. mario.garciaarraez@epfl.ch.Global Health Institute, School of Life Science, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Lausanne, Switzerland.International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology (ICIPE), Kasarani, Nairobi, Kenya.Global Health Institute, School of Life Science, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Lausanne, Switzerland. bruno.lemaitre@epfl.ch.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

30786854

Citation

Garcia-Arraez, Mario Gonzalo, et al. "Functional Analysis of RIP Toxins From the Drosophila Endosymbiont Spiroplasma Poulsonii." BMC Microbiology, vol. 19, no. 1, 2019, p. 46.
Garcia-Arraez MG, Masson F, Escobar JCP, et al. Functional analysis of RIP toxins from the Drosophila endosymbiont Spiroplasma poulsonii. BMC Microbiol. 2019;19(1):46.
Garcia-Arraez, M. G., Masson, F., Escobar, J. C. P., & Lemaitre, B. (2019). Functional analysis of RIP toxins from the Drosophila endosymbiont Spiroplasma poulsonii. BMC Microbiology, 19(1), 46. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12866-019-1410-1
Garcia-Arraez MG, et al. Functional Analysis of RIP Toxins From the Drosophila Endosymbiont Spiroplasma Poulsonii. BMC Microbiol. 2019 02 20;19(1):46. PubMed PMID: 30786854.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Functional analysis of RIP toxins from the Drosophila endosymbiont Spiroplasma poulsonii. AU - Garcia-Arraez,Mario Gonzalo, AU - Masson,Florent, AU - Escobar,Juan Camilo Paredes, AU - Lemaitre,Bruno, Y1 - 2019/02/20/ PY - 2018/07/09/received PY - 2019/01/31/accepted PY - 2019/2/22/entrez PY - 2019/2/23/pubmed PY - 2019/12/18/medline KW - Drosophila KW - Endosymbiosis KW - Ribosome inactivating protein KW - Spiroplasma SP - 46 EP - 46 JF - BMC microbiology JO - BMC Microbiol VL - 19 IS - 1 N2 - BACKGROUND: Insects frequently live in close relationship with symbiotic bacteria that carry out beneficial functions for their host, like protection against parasites and viruses. However, in some cases, the mutualistic nature of such associations is put into question because of detrimental phenotypes caused by the symbiont. One example is the association between the vertically transmitted facultative endosymbiont Spiroplasma poulsonii and its natural host Drosophila melanogaster. Whereas S. poulsonii protects its host against parasitoid wasps and nematodes by the action of toxins from the family of Ribosome Inactivating Proteins (RIPs), the presence of S. poulsonii has been reported to reduce host's life span and to kill male embryos by a toxin called Spaid. In this work, we investigate the harmful effects of Spiroplasma RIPs on Drosophila in the absence of parasite infection. RESULTS: We show that only two Spiroplasma RIPs (SpRIP1 and SpRIP2) among the five RIP genes encoded in the S. poulsonii genome are significantly expressed during the whole Drosophila life cycle. Heterologous expression of SpRIP1 and 2 in uninfected flies confirms their toxicity, as indicated by a reduction of Drosophila lifespan and hemocyte number. We also show that RIPs can cause the death of some embryos, including females. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that RIPs released by S. poulsonii contribute to the reduction of host lifespan and embryo mortality. This suggests that SpRIPs may impact the insect-symbiont homeostasis beyond their protective function against parasites. SN - 1471-2180 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/30786854/Functional_analysis_of_RIP_toxins_from_the_Drosophila_endosymbiont_Spiroplasma_poulsonii_ L2 - https://bmcmicrobiol.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12866-019-1410-1 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -