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Evidence for two distinct domains of negative symptoms: Confirming the factorial structure of the CAINS.
Psychiatry Res. 2019 01; 271:693-701.PR

Abstract

Negative symptoms are an important predictor of course of illness as well as social and occupational functioning. Clinically effective interventions are scarce. For negative symptoms to become a reliable primary endpoint in treatment studies, clear operationalization and construct validation is needed. Recent factor analyses mostly find two main factors for negative symptoms: diminished expression und amotivation/anhedonia. The Clinical Assessment Interview for Negative Symptoms (CAINS) consists of the subscales "motivation and pleasure" and "expression". We assessed three samples of subjects with schizophrenia (n = 105) for different aspects of the scale's reliability and validity. A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) of the CAINS confirmed its two-factorial structure. The subscales had distinct correlational profiles: "Motivation and pleasure" was strongly associated with functional outcome and depression and further with neurocognition, positive symptoms and social cognition. "Expression" seems independent of sources of secondary negative symptoms and neurocognition. We found good internal consistency and interrater agreement. Test-retest reliability (two-week interval) was moderate for the CAINS and its "expression" subscale and low for the "motivation and pleasure" subscale. Our findings indicate that the CAINS differentiates reliably between the two main domains of negative symptoms with some questions remaining concerning the validity of the "motivation and pleasure" subscale.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Tuebingen, Calwerstrasse 14, 72076 Tuebingen, Germany. Electronic address: janina.richter@med.uni-tuebingen.de.Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Tuebingen, Calwerstrasse 14, 72076 Tuebingen, Germany. Electronic address: klaus.hesse@med.uni-tuebingen.de.Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Tuebingen, Calwerstrasse 14, 72076 Tuebingen, Germany. Electronic address: lisa.schreiber@med.uni-tuebingen.de.Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Tuebingen, Calwerstrasse 14, 72076 Tuebingen, Germany. Electronic address: c.burmeister@iwm-tuebingen.de.Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Tuebingen, Calwerstrasse 14, 72076 Tuebingen, Germany. Electronic address: mark-christian.eberle@med.uni-tuebingen.de.Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Tuebingen, Calwerstrasse 14, 72076 Tuebingen, Germany. Electronic address: kathrin.karle@med.uni-tuebingen.de.Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Tuebingen, Calwerstrasse 14, 72076 Tuebingen, Germany. Electronic address: lina.zimmermann@med.uni-tuebingen.de.Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Tuebingen, Calwerstrasse 14, 72076 Tuebingen, Germany. Electronic address: .wildgruber@med.uni-tuebingen.de.Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Tuebingen, Calwerstrasse 14, 72076 Tuebingen, Germany. Electronic address: stefan.klingberg@med.uni-tuebingen.de.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

30791343

Citation

Richter, Janina, et al. "Evidence for Two Distinct Domains of Negative Symptoms: Confirming the Factorial Structure of the CAINS." Psychiatry Research, vol. 271, 2019, pp. 693-701.
Richter J, Hesse K, Schreiber L, et al. Evidence for two distinct domains of negative symptoms: Confirming the factorial structure of the CAINS. Psychiatry Res. 2019;271:693-701.
Richter, J., Hesse, K., Schreiber, L., Burmeister, C. P., Eberle, M. C., Eckstein, K. N., Zimmermann, L., Wildgruber, D., & Klingberg, S. (2019). Evidence for two distinct domains of negative symptoms: Confirming the factorial structure of the CAINS. Psychiatry Research, 271, 693-701. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2018.12.043
Richter J, et al. Evidence for Two Distinct Domains of Negative Symptoms: Confirming the Factorial Structure of the CAINS. Psychiatry Res. 2019;271:693-701. PubMed PMID: 30791343.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Evidence for two distinct domains of negative symptoms: Confirming the factorial structure of the CAINS. AU - Richter,Janina, AU - Hesse,Klaus, AU - Schreiber,Lisa, AU - Burmeister,Carolin P, AU - Eberle,Mark-Christian, AU - Eckstein,Kathrin N, AU - Zimmermann,Lina, AU - Wildgruber,Dirk, AU - Klingberg,Stefan, Y1 - 2018/12/08/ PY - 2018/07/02/received PY - 2018/12/06/revised PY - 2018/12/06/accepted PY - 2019/2/23/entrez PY - 2019/2/23/pubmed PY - 2019/4/11/medline SP - 693 EP - 701 JF - Psychiatry research JO - Psychiatry Res VL - 271 N2 - Negative symptoms are an important predictor of course of illness as well as social and occupational functioning. Clinically effective interventions are scarce. For negative symptoms to become a reliable primary endpoint in treatment studies, clear operationalization and construct validation is needed. Recent factor analyses mostly find two main factors for negative symptoms: diminished expression und amotivation/anhedonia. The Clinical Assessment Interview for Negative Symptoms (CAINS) consists of the subscales "motivation and pleasure" and "expression". We assessed three samples of subjects with schizophrenia (n = 105) for different aspects of the scale's reliability and validity. A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) of the CAINS confirmed its two-factorial structure. The subscales had distinct correlational profiles: "Motivation and pleasure" was strongly associated with functional outcome and depression and further with neurocognition, positive symptoms and social cognition. "Expression" seems independent of sources of secondary negative symptoms and neurocognition. We found good internal consistency and interrater agreement. Test-retest reliability (two-week interval) was moderate for the CAINS and its "expression" subscale and low for the "motivation and pleasure" subscale. Our findings indicate that the CAINS differentiates reliably between the two main domains of negative symptoms with some questions remaining concerning the validity of the "motivation and pleasure" subscale. SN - 1872-7123 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/30791343/Evidence_for_two_distinct_domains_of_negative_symptoms:_Confirming_the_factorial_structure_of_the_CAINS_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0165-1781(18)31117-X DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -