Anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of cinnamaldehyde and eugenol on mononuclear cells of rheumatoid arthritis patients.Eur J Pharmacol. 2019 Jun 05; 852:14-24.EJ
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disorder affecting joints and frequently characterized by initial local and later systemic inflammation. The present study was conducted with the aim to determine the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of cinnamaldehyde and eugenol in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of RA patients. PBMCs obtained from RA patients were treated with varying concentrations of cinnamaldehyde and eugenol. The levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were monitored in the 24-h culture supernatant of PBMCs. Reactive oxygen species formation, biomolecular oxidation and the activities of antioxidant enzymes were also determined. FTIR analysis was done to determine structural alterations in the PBMCs. Molecular docking was performed to gain an insight into the binding mechanism of eugenol and cinnamaldehyde with pro-inflammatory cytokines. The levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and markers of oxidative stress were found to be elevated in the PBMC culture of RA patients as compared to the healthy controls. Cinnamaldehyde and eugenol have significantly reduced the levels of cytokines. Reactive oxygen species formation, biomolecular oxidation and antioxidant defense response were also ameliorated by treating PBMCs with both the compounds. FTIR results further confirms cinnamaldehyde and eugenol mediated protection to biomolecules of PBMCs of RA patients. Molecular docking results indicates interaction of cinnamaldehyde and eugenol with key residues of TNF-α and IL-6. Cinnamaldehyde and eugenol were found to exert potent anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects on the PBMC culture of RA patients. So, these compounds may be used as an adjunct in the management of RA.