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Foot Alignment in Symptomatic National Basketball Association Players Using Weightbearing Cone Beam Computed Tomography.
Orthop J Sports Med. 2019 Feb; 7(2):2325967119826081.OJ

Abstract

Background

Weightbearing cone beam computed tomography (WB CBCT) allows detailed 3-dimensional imaging of the foot and ankle in a weightbearing state and provides improved accuracy and reliability of foot alignment measures, especially when compared with conventional radiographic views.

Purpose

To describe the foot alignment in National Basketball Association (NBA) players with different symptomatic foot and ankle injuries using WB CBCT and to determine if any predominant morphotype would be identified.

Study Design

Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3.

Methods

A total of 45 active NBA players (mean age, 24.4 years [range, 20-34 years]; N = 54 feet [29 right, 25 left]) were assessed using WB CBCT. Measurements included the following: (1) foot and ankle offset (FAO), (2) calcaneal offset (CO), (3) hindfoot alignment angle (HAA), (4) angle between the inferior and superior facets of the talus (Inftal-Suptal), (5) angle between the inferior facet of the talus and the horizontal floor line (Inftal-Hor), (6) forefoot arch angle (FAA), (7) navicular-to-floor distance, and (8) medial cuneiform-to-floor distance. Measurements were then compared with values available in the literature for a "normal" foot morphotype.

Results

Among the 54 feet, the mean FAO was 0.48% (95% CI, -0.25% to 1.21%), the mean CO was 1.18 mm (95% CI, -0.50 to 2.87 mm), and the mean HAA was 1.42° (95% CI, -0.80° to 3.65°). The mean Inftal-Suptal angle was 5.31° (95% CI, 3.50°-7.12°), while the mean Inftal-Hor angle was 4.04° (95% CI, 2.56°-5.51°). The mean FAA was 15.84° (95% CI, 14.73°-16.92°), the mean navicular-to-floor distance was 38.30 mm (95% CI, 36.19-40.42 mm), and the mean medial cuneiform-to-floor distance was 26.79 mm (95% CI, 25.30-28.28 mm). None of these values were found to be significantly different when comparing forwards, guards, and centers.

Conclusion

NBA players presenting with symptomatic foot and ankle injuries had a fairly "normal" foot morphology, with a tendency toward a varus hindfoot and a high-arched morphotype. No significant differences were found between players based on their position on the court. WB CBCT may help to shed light on anatomic risk factors for common injuries in professional players and may aid in the planning of specific prevention programs.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Foot and Ankle Service, Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, New York, USA.Foot and Ankle Service, Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, New York, USA.Foot and Ankle Service, Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, New York, USA.Foot and Ankle Service, Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, New York, USA.Foot and Ankle Service, Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, New York, USA.Foot and Ankle Service, Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, New York, USA.Foot and Ankle Service, Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, New York, USA.Foot and Ankle Service, Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, New York, USA.Foot and Ankle Service, Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, New York, USA.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

30815498

Citation

de Cesar Netto, Cesar, et al. "Foot Alignment in Symptomatic National Basketball Association Players Using Weightbearing Cone Beam Computed Tomography." Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine, vol. 7, no. 2, 2019, p. 2325967119826081.
de Cesar Netto C, Bernasconi A, Roberts L, et al. Foot Alignment in Symptomatic National Basketball Association Players Using Weightbearing Cone Beam Computed Tomography. Orthop J Sports Med. 2019;7(2):2325967119826081.
de Cesar Netto, C., Bernasconi, A., Roberts, L., Pontin, P. A., Lintz, F., Saito, G. H., Roney, A., Elliott, A., & O'Malley, M. (2019). Foot Alignment in Symptomatic National Basketball Association Players Using Weightbearing Cone Beam Computed Tomography. Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine, 7(2), 2325967119826081. https://doi.org/10.1177/2325967119826081
de Cesar Netto C, et al. Foot Alignment in Symptomatic National Basketball Association Players Using Weightbearing Cone Beam Computed Tomography. Orthop J Sports Med. 2019;7(2):2325967119826081. PubMed PMID: 30815498.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Foot Alignment in Symptomatic National Basketball Association Players Using Weightbearing Cone Beam Computed Tomography. AU - de Cesar Netto,Cesar, AU - Bernasconi,Alessio, AU - Roberts,Lauren, AU - Pontin,Pedro Augusto, AU - Lintz,Francois, AU - Saito,Guilherme Honda, AU - Roney,Andrew, AU - Elliott,Andrew, AU - O'Malley,Martin, Y1 - 2019/02/21/ PY - 2019/3/1/entrez PY - 2019/3/1/pubmed PY - 2019/3/1/medline KW - NBA KW - basketball player KW - cone beam CT KW - foot and ankle offset KW - hindfoot alignment KW - weightbearing CT SP - 2325967119826081 EP - 2325967119826081 JF - Orthopaedic journal of sports medicine JO - Orthop J Sports Med VL - 7 IS - 2 N2 - Background: Weightbearing cone beam computed tomography (WB CBCT) allows detailed 3-dimensional imaging of the foot and ankle in a weightbearing state and provides improved accuracy and reliability of foot alignment measures, especially when compared with conventional radiographic views. Purpose: To describe the foot alignment in National Basketball Association (NBA) players with different symptomatic foot and ankle injuries using WB CBCT and to determine if any predominant morphotype would be identified. Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: A total of 45 active NBA players (mean age, 24.4 years [range, 20-34 years]; N = 54 feet [29 right, 25 left]) were assessed using WB CBCT. Measurements included the following: (1) foot and ankle offset (FAO), (2) calcaneal offset (CO), (3) hindfoot alignment angle (HAA), (4) angle between the inferior and superior facets of the talus (Inftal-Suptal), (5) angle between the inferior facet of the talus and the horizontal floor line (Inftal-Hor), (6) forefoot arch angle (FAA), (7) navicular-to-floor distance, and (8) medial cuneiform-to-floor distance. Measurements were then compared with values available in the literature for a "normal" foot morphotype. Results: Among the 54 feet, the mean FAO was 0.48% (95% CI, -0.25% to 1.21%), the mean CO was 1.18 mm (95% CI, -0.50 to 2.87 mm), and the mean HAA was 1.42° (95% CI, -0.80° to 3.65°). The mean Inftal-Suptal angle was 5.31° (95% CI, 3.50°-7.12°), while the mean Inftal-Hor angle was 4.04° (95% CI, 2.56°-5.51°). The mean FAA was 15.84° (95% CI, 14.73°-16.92°), the mean navicular-to-floor distance was 38.30 mm (95% CI, 36.19-40.42 mm), and the mean medial cuneiform-to-floor distance was 26.79 mm (95% CI, 25.30-28.28 mm). None of these values were found to be significantly different when comparing forwards, guards, and centers. Conclusion: NBA players presenting with symptomatic foot and ankle injuries had a fairly "normal" foot morphology, with a tendency toward a varus hindfoot and a high-arched morphotype. No significant differences were found between players based on their position on the court. WB CBCT may help to shed light on anatomic risk factors for common injuries in professional players and may aid in the planning of specific prevention programs. SN - 2325-9671 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/30815498/Foot_Alignment_in_Symptomatic_National_Basketball_Association_Players_Using_Weightbearing_Cone_Beam_Computed_Tomography_ L2 - https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/2325967119826081?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr_id=ori:rid:crossref.org&rfr_dat=cr_pub=www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -
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