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Dietary carbohydrate intake, glycaemic index, glycaemic load and digestive system cancers: an updated dose-response meta-analysis.
Br J Nutr. 2019 05; 121(10):1081-1096.BJ

Abstract

Several studies analysed the associations between dietary carbohydrate intake, glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic load (GL) and digestive system cancers; however, the results remain controversial. This study was to perform a meta-analysis evaluating the quantitative and dose-response associations between carbohydrate intake, GI and GL, and risk of digestive system cancers. We searched medical and biological databases up to June 2018 and identified twenty-six cohort studies and eighteen case-control studies. Meta-analytic fixed or random effects models were applied to process data. We also performed dose-response analysis, meta-regression and subgroup analyses. We found that high levels of GI were significantly associated with the risk of digestive system cancers at the highest compared with the lowest categories from cohort studies (summary relative risk (RR)=1·10, 95 % CI 1·05, 1·15). Similar effects were observed from case-control studies of the comparison between the extreme categories, but the difference did not reach statistical significance (summary OR=1·28, 95 % CI 0·97, 1·69). We also observed significant dose-response association between GI and digestive system cancers, with every 10-unit increase in GI (summary RR=1·003; 95 % CI 1·000, 1·012 for cohort studies; summary OR=1·09; 95 % CI 1·06, 1·11 for case-control studies). In addition, both cohort studies and case-control studies indicated that neither dietary carbohydrate intake nor GL bore any statistical relationship to digestive system cancers from the results of the highest compared with the lowest categories analyses and dose-response analyses. The results suggest a moderate association between high-GI diets and the risk of digestive system cancers.

Authors+Show Affiliations

1Department of General Surgery,Ningbo Medical Center Lihuili Hospital,Ningbo,315000, People's Republic of China.2Department of Gastroenterology,Ningbo First Hospital,Ningbo,315000, People's Republic of China.3Department of Intern Medicine,Vanderbilt University Medical Center,Nashville,TN 372012,USA.1Department of General Surgery,Ningbo Medical Center Lihuili Hospital,Ningbo,315000, People's Republic of China.1Department of General Surgery,Ningbo Medical Center Lihuili Hospital,Ningbo,315000, People's Republic of China.1Department of General Surgery,Ningbo Medical Center Lihuili Hospital,Ningbo,315000, People's Republic of China.1Department of General Surgery,Ningbo Medical Center Lihuili Hospital,Ningbo,315000, People's Republic of China.4Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics,Zhejiang University,Hangzhou,310058, People's Republic of China.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Meta-Analysis
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

30837012

Citation

Cai, Xianlei, et al. "Dietary Carbohydrate Intake, Glycaemic Index, Glycaemic Load and Digestive System Cancers: an Updated Dose-response Meta-analysis." The British Journal of Nutrition, vol. 121, no. 10, 2019, pp. 1081-1096.
Cai X, Li X, Tang M, et al. Dietary carbohydrate intake, glycaemic index, glycaemic load and digestive system cancers: an updated dose-response meta-analysis. Br J Nutr. 2019;121(10):1081-1096.
Cai, X., Li, X., Tang, M., Liang, C., Xu, Y., Zhang, M., Yu, W., & Li, X. (2019). Dietary carbohydrate intake, glycaemic index, glycaemic load and digestive system cancers: an updated dose-response meta-analysis. The British Journal of Nutrition, 121(10), 1081-1096. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007114519000424
Cai X, et al. Dietary Carbohydrate Intake, Glycaemic Index, Glycaemic Load and Digestive System Cancers: an Updated Dose-response Meta-analysis. Br J Nutr. 2019;121(10):1081-1096. PubMed PMID: 30837012.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Dietary carbohydrate intake, glycaemic index, glycaemic load and digestive system cancers: an updated dose-response meta-analysis. AU - Cai,Xianlei, AU - Li,Xueying, AU - Tang,Mengyao, AU - Liang,Chao, AU - Xu,Yuan, AU - Zhang,Miaozun, AU - Yu,Weiming, AU - Li,Xiuyang, Y1 - 2019/03/06/ PY - 2019/3/7/pubmed PY - 2020/2/15/medline PY - 2019/3/7/entrez KW - GI glycaemic index KW - GL glycaemic load KW - IGF insulin-like growth factor KW - RR relative risk KW - Carbohydrate KW - Digestive system cancers KW - Glycaemic index KW - Glycaemic load KW - Meta-analyses SP - 1081 EP - 1096 JF - The British journal of nutrition JO - Br. J. Nutr. VL - 121 IS - 10 N2 - Several studies analysed the associations between dietary carbohydrate intake, glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic load (GL) and digestive system cancers; however, the results remain controversial. This study was to perform a meta-analysis evaluating the quantitative and dose-response associations between carbohydrate intake, GI and GL, and risk of digestive system cancers. We searched medical and biological databases up to June 2018 and identified twenty-six cohort studies and eighteen case-control studies. Meta-analytic fixed or random effects models were applied to process data. We also performed dose-response analysis, meta-regression and subgroup analyses. We found that high levels of GI were significantly associated with the risk of digestive system cancers at the highest compared with the lowest categories from cohort studies (summary relative risk (RR)=1·10, 95 % CI 1·05, 1·15). Similar effects were observed from case-control studies of the comparison between the extreme categories, but the difference did not reach statistical significance (summary OR=1·28, 95 % CI 0·97, 1·69). We also observed significant dose-response association between GI and digestive system cancers, with every 10-unit increase in GI (summary RR=1·003; 95 % CI 1·000, 1·012 for cohort studies; summary OR=1·09; 95 % CI 1·06, 1·11 for case-control studies). In addition, both cohort studies and case-control studies indicated that neither dietary carbohydrate intake nor GL bore any statistical relationship to digestive system cancers from the results of the highest compared with the lowest categories analyses and dose-response analyses. The results suggest a moderate association between high-GI diets and the risk of digestive system cancers. SN - 1475-2662 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/30837012/Dietary_carbohydrate_intake_glycaemic_index_glycaemic_load_and_digestive_system_cancers:_an_updated_dose_response_meta_analysis_ L2 - https://www.cambridge.org/core/product/identifier/S0007114519000424/type/journal_article DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -