Transport of Flavanolic Monomers and Procyanidin Dimer A2 across Human Adenocarcinoma Stomach Cells (MKN-28).J Agric Food Chem. 2019 Mar 27; 67(12):3354-3362.JA
It has been proven that A-type procyanidins, containing an additional ether bond, compared to B-type procyanidins are also bioavailable in vitro and in vivo. However, their bioavailability and absorption in the gastrointestinal tract remain uncertain. In this study, a model of the human adenocarcinoma stomach cell line (MKN-28) was established to explore the cellular transport of flavanolic monomers and procyanidin dimer A2, which were isolated from the litchi pericarp extract. After the integrity and permeability of the cell monolayer were ensured by measurement of the transepithelial electrical resistance and the apparent permeability coefficient for Lucifer yellow, the transportation of procyanidins A2 and B2, (-)-epicatechin (EC), and (+)-catechin (CC) was studied at pH 3.0, 5.0, or 7.0 in the apical side, with compound concentrations of 0.05 and 0.1 mg/mL based on the cytotoxicity test. High-performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses indicated that EC, CC, and A2 were transported in the MKN-28 cell line from 30 to 180 min, while B2 showed no transport. The maximal transport efficiencies of EC, CC, and A2 were 23 ± 0.81, 13.16 ± 1.53, and 16.41 ± 1.36%, respectively, existing at 120, 180, and 120 min of transportation. Laser scanning confocal microscopy analysis presented the dynamic transmission of EC, in accordance with the result of concentration determination, suggesting that the A-type procyanidins are possibly absorbed through the stomach barrier, which is pH- and time-dependent.