Ecotoxicological effects and removal of 17β-estradiol in chlorella algae.Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2019 Jun 15; 174:377-383.EE
17β-estradiol (E2) is a steroid estrogen able to affect the reproduction of aquatic organisms even at extremely low concentrations. The behavior of E2 in the presence of chlorella algae was investigated in laboratory experiments. The results showed that the algae's growth was inhibited by 26% after 7 days of culturing in a 2.0 mg L-1 solution of E2. The 96 h EC50 value of 21.46 mg L-1 reflected moderate toxicity. Even low concentrations of E2 were found to affect total chlorophyll and carotenoid levels after 7 and 10 days and to alter stress-generated enzymatic activity in the algae. The efficiency of chlorella's E2 degradation decreased with the increasing of E2 concentration, but 92% of the E2 can be removed from a 0.5 mg L-1 solution over 10 days. The degradation mechanism was speculated. The microalgae suffered relatively less growth inhibition at low E2 concentrations, and their removal effectiveness was then better. The data help to elucidate the interaction between chlorella algae and E2 in an aquatic environment.