Stereoselective toxicity of metconazole to the antioxidant defenses and the photosynthesis system of Chlorella pyrenoidosa.Aquat Toxicol. 2019 May; 210:129-138.AT
Metconazole (MEZ) is a broad-spectrum fungicide with four optical stereoisomers. Compared to traditional fungicides, it achieves better control effect at lower dosages. However, its toxicity to non-target organisms has rarely been investigated. This study investigated the stereoselective toxicity of metconazole to Chlorella pyrenoidosa (C. pyrenoidosa). The results indicate that the presence of the racemate and four stereoisomers of MEZ caused a sudden increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS). This in turn stimulated antioxidant defense, impaired photosynthesis and responses of subcellular structure, and eventually inhibited cell growth. The 96 h-EC50 of the racemate, cis-1R,5S-MEZ, cis-1S,5R-MEZ, trans-1S,5S-MEZ, and trans-1R,5R-MEZ were 0.058, 0.182, 0.129, 0.032, and 0.038 mg/L, respectively. Furtheromre, the generation of ROS, antioxidant response, and the loss of photosynthetic function in C. pyrenoidosa were all preferentially trans-1S,5S-MEZ induced. These results aid the understanding of the stereoselective effects of chiral pesticides on C. pyrenoidosa. Such stereoselective differences must be considered when assessing the risk of metconazole to environment.