Tags

Type your tag names separated by a space and hit enter

Field testing of a prototype mechanical dry toilet flush.
Sci Total Environ 2019; 668:419-431ST

Abstract

A prototype of a non-fluid based mechanical toilet flush was tested in a semi-public, institutional setting and in selected peri-urban households in eThekwini municipality, Republic of South Africa. The mechanism's functionality and users' perception of the flush were assessed. User perception varied depending on background: Users accustomed to porcelain water flush toilets were open to, yet reserved about the idea of using a waterless flush in their homes. Those who commonly use Urine Diversion Dehydration Toilets were far more receptive. The user-centred field trials were complemented by a controlled laboratory experiment, using synthetic urine, -faeces, and -menstrual blood, to systematically assess the efficiency of three swipe materials to clean the rotating bowl of the flush. A silicone rubber with oil-bleed-effect was found to be the best performing material for the swipe. Lubrication of the bowl prior to use further reduced fouling. A mechanical waterless flush that does not require consumables, like plastic wrappers, is a novelty and could - implemented in existing dry toilet systems - improve acceptance and thus the success of waterless sanitation.

Authors+Show Affiliations

School of Water, Energy and Environment, Cranfield University, United Kingdom.School of Water, Energy and Environment, Cranfield University, United Kingdom.Pollution Research Group, University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.School of Water, Energy and Environment, Cranfield University, United Kingdom.Pollution Research Group, University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.School of Water, Energy and Environment, Cranfield University, United Kingdom.School of Water, Energy and Environment, Cranfield University, United Kingdom.School of Water, Energy and Environment, Cranfield University, United Kingdom.School of Water, Energy and Environment, Cranfield University, United Kingdom.School of Water, Energy and Environment, Cranfield University, United Kingdom.School of Water, Energy and Environment, Cranfield University, United Kingdom.School of Water, Energy and Environment, Cranfield University, United Kingdom.School of Water, Energy and Environment, Cranfield University, United Kingdom. Electronic address: s.tyrrel@cranfield.ac.uk.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

30852218

Citation

Hennigs, Jan, et al. "Field Testing of a Prototype Mechanical Dry Toilet Flush." The Science of the Total Environment, vol. 668, 2019, pp. 419-431.
Hennigs J, Ravndal KT, Blose T, et al. Field testing of a prototype mechanical dry toilet flush. Sci Total Environ. 2019;668:419-431.
Hennigs, J., Ravndal, K. T., Blose, T., Toolaram, A., Sindall, R. C., Barrington, D., ... Tyrrel, S. (2019). Field testing of a prototype mechanical dry toilet flush. The Science of the Total Environment, 668, pp. 419-431. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.02.220.
Hennigs J, et al. Field Testing of a Prototype Mechanical Dry Toilet Flush. Sci Total Environ. 2019 Jun 10;668:419-431. PubMed PMID: 30852218.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Field testing of a prototype mechanical dry toilet flush. AU - Hennigs,Jan, AU - Ravndal,Kristin T, AU - Blose,Thubelihle, AU - Toolaram,Anju, AU - Sindall,Rebecca C, AU - Barrington,Dani, AU - Collins,Matt, AU - Engineer,Bhavin, AU - Kolios,Athanasios J, AU - McAdam,Ewan, AU - Parker,Alison, AU - Williams,Leon, AU - Tyrrel,Sean, Y1 - 2019/02/17/ PY - 2019/01/10/received PY - 2019/02/13/revised PY - 2019/02/14/accepted PY - 2019/3/11/pubmed PY - 2019/3/11/medline PY - 2019/3/11/entrez KW - Iterative design KW - Reinvent the toilet challenge KW - Science-design Interface KW - User testing KW - WASH SP - 419 EP - 431 JF - The Science of the total environment JO - Sci. Total Environ. VL - 668 N2 - A prototype of a non-fluid based mechanical toilet flush was tested in a semi-public, institutional setting and in selected peri-urban households in eThekwini municipality, Republic of South Africa. The mechanism's functionality and users' perception of the flush were assessed. User perception varied depending on background: Users accustomed to porcelain water flush toilets were open to, yet reserved about the idea of using a waterless flush in their homes. Those who commonly use Urine Diversion Dehydration Toilets were far more receptive. The user-centred field trials were complemented by a controlled laboratory experiment, using synthetic urine, -faeces, and -menstrual blood, to systematically assess the efficiency of three swipe materials to clean the rotating bowl of the flush. A silicone rubber with oil-bleed-effect was found to be the best performing material for the swipe. Lubrication of the bowl prior to use further reduced fouling. A mechanical waterless flush that does not require consumables, like plastic wrappers, is a novelty and could - implemented in existing dry toilet systems - improve acceptance and thus the success of waterless sanitation. SN - 1879-1026 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/30852218/Field_testing_of_a_prototype_mechanical_dry_toilet_flush_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0048-9697(19)30707-7 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -