Every Coin Has Two Sides: Reactive Oxygen Species during Rice⁻Magnaporthe oryzae Interaction.Int J Mol Sci. 2019 Mar 08; 20(5)IJ
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in many important processes, including the growth, development, and responses to the environments, in rice (Oryza sativa) and Magnaporthe oryzae. Although ROS are known to be critical components in rice⁻M. oryzae interactions, their regulations and pathways have not yet been completely revealed. Recent studies have provided fascinating insights into the intricate physiological redox balance in rice⁻M. oryzae interactions. In M. oryzae, ROS accumulation is required for the appressorium formation and penetration. However, once inside the rice cells, M. oryzae must scavenge the host-derived ROS to spread invasive hyphae. On the other side, ROS play key roles in rice against M. oryzae. It has been known that, upon perception of M. oryzae, rice plants modulate their activities of ROS generating and scavenging enzymes, mainly on NADPH oxidase OsRbohB, by different signaling pathways to accumulate ROS against rice blast. By contrast, the M. oryzae virulent strains are capable of suppressing ROS accumulation and attenuating rice blast resistance by the secretion of effectors, such as AvrPii and AvrPiz-t. These results suggest that ROS generation and scavenging of ROS are tightly controlled by different pathways in both M. oryzae and rice during rice blast. In this review, the most recent advances in the understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of ROS accumulation and signaling during rice⁻M. oryzae interaction are summarized.