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Exploring the heterogeneity of human exposure to malaria vectors in an urban setting, Bouaké, Côte d'Ivoire, using an immuno-epidemiological biomarker.
Malar J. 2019 Mar 11; 18(1):68.MJ

Abstract

BACKGROUND

In some African cities, urban malaria is a threat to the health and welfare of city dwellers. To improve the control of the disease, it is critical to identify neighbourhoods where the risk of malaria transmission is the highest. This study aims to evaluate the heterogeneity of malaria transmission risk in one city (Bouaké) in a West African country (Côte d'Ivoire) that presents several levels of urbanization.

METHODS

Two cross-sectional studies were conducted in three neighbourhoods (Dar-es-Salam, Kennedy and N'gattakro) in Bouaké during both the rainy and dry seasons. Data on insecticide-treated net (ITN) use and blood samples were collected from children aged between 6 months and 15 years to determine the parasite density and the prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum and the level of IgG against the Anopheles gSG6-P1 salivary peptide, used as the biomarker of Anopheles bite exposure.

RESULTS

The specific IgG levels to the gSG6-P1 salivary peptide in the rainy season were significantly higher compared to the dry season in all neighbourhoods studied (all p < 0.001). Interestingly, these specific IgG levels did not differ between neighbourhoods during the rainy season, whereas significant differences in IgG level were observed in the dry season (p = 0.034). ITN use could be a major factor of variation in the specific IgG level. Nevertheless, no difference in specific IgG levels to the gSG6-P1 salivary peptide was observed between children who declared "always" versus "never" sleeping under an ITN in each neighbourhood. In addition, the prevalence of P. falciparum in the whole population and immune responders was significantly different between neighbourhoods in each season (p < 0.0001).

CONCLUSION

This study highlights the high risk of malaria exposure in African urban settings and the high heterogeneity of child exposure to the Anopheles vector between neighbourhoods in the same city. The Anopheles gSG6-P1 salivary peptide could be a suitable biomarker to accurately and quantitatively assess the risk of malaria transmission in urban areas.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Institut Pierre Richet (IPR), Institut National de la Santé Publique (INSP), Bouaké, Côte d'Ivoire. francois-dipomin.traore@ird.fr. MIVEGEC, Univ. Montpellier, CNRS, IRD, Montpellier, France. francois-dipomin.traore@ird.fr. Unité de Formation et de Recherche en Sciences de la nature (UFR SN), Université Nangui Abrogoua, Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire. francois-dipomin.traore@ird.fr.Institut Pierre Richet (IPR), Institut National de la Santé Publique (INSP), Bouaké, Côte d'Ivoire. MIVEGEC, Univ. Montpellier, CNRS, IRD, Montpellier, France.Institut Pierre Richet (IPR), Institut National de la Santé Publique (INSP), Bouaké, Côte d'Ivoire. Unité de Formation et de Recherche en Biosciences (UFR Biosciences), Université Félix Houphouët Boigny, Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire.Institut Pierre Richet (IPR), Institut National de la Santé Publique (INSP), Bouaké, Côte d'Ivoire. Unité de Formation et de Recherche en Biosciences (UFR Biosciences), Université Félix Houphouët Boigny, Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire.Institut Pierre Richet (IPR), Institut National de la Santé Publique (INSP), Bouaké, Côte d'Ivoire. Institut de Géographie Tropicale (IGT), Université Félix Houphouët Boigny, Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire.Institut Pierre Richet (IPR), Institut National de la Santé Publique (INSP), Bouaké, Côte d'Ivoire.Institut Pierre Richet (IPR), Institut National de la Santé Publique (INSP), Bouaké, Côte d'Ivoire.Institut Pierre Richet (IPR), Institut National de la Santé Publique (INSP), Bouaké, Côte d'Ivoire.Institut Pierre Richet (IPR), Institut National de la Santé Publique (INSP), Bouaké, Côte d'Ivoire.Institut Pierre Richet (IPR), Institut National de la Santé Publique (INSP), Bouaké, Côte d'Ivoire. MIVEGEC, Univ. Montpellier, CNRS, IRD, Montpellier, France.Unité de Formation et de Recherche en Sciences de la nature (UFR SN), Université Nangui Abrogoua, Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire.Institut Pierre Richet (IPR), Institut National de la Santé Publique (INSP), Bouaké, Côte d'Ivoire. MIVEGEC, Univ. Montpellier, CNRS, IRD, Montpellier, France.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

30857543

Citation

Traoré, Dipomin F., et al. "Exploring the Heterogeneity of Human Exposure to Malaria Vectors in an Urban Setting, Bouaké, Côte d'Ivoire, Using an Immuno-epidemiological Biomarker." Malaria Journal, vol. 18, no. 1, 2019, p. 68.
Traoré DF, Sagna AB, Adja AM, et al. Exploring the heterogeneity of human exposure to malaria vectors in an urban setting, Bouaké, Côte d'Ivoire, using an immuno-epidemiological biomarker. Malar J. 2019;18(1):68.
Traoré, D. F., Sagna, A. B., Adja, A. M., Zoh, D. D., Adou, K. A., Lingué, K. N., Coulibaly, I., Tchiekoi, N. B., Assi, S. B., Poinsignon, A., Dagnogo, M., & Remoue, F. (2019). Exploring the heterogeneity of human exposure to malaria vectors in an urban setting, Bouaké, Côte d'Ivoire, using an immuno-epidemiological biomarker. Malaria Journal, 18(1), 68. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12936-019-2696-z
Traoré DF, et al. Exploring the Heterogeneity of Human Exposure to Malaria Vectors in an Urban Setting, Bouaké, Côte d'Ivoire, Using an Immuno-epidemiological Biomarker. Malar J. 2019 Mar 11;18(1):68. PubMed PMID: 30857543.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Exploring the heterogeneity of human exposure to malaria vectors in an urban setting, Bouaké, Côte d'Ivoire, using an immuno-epidemiological biomarker. AU - Traoré,Dipomin F, AU - Sagna,André B, AU - Adja,Akré M, AU - Zoh,Dounin D, AU - Adou,Kouassi A, AU - Lingué,Kouassi N, AU - Coulibaly,Issa, AU - Tchiekoi,N'Cho Bertin, AU - Assi,Serge B, AU - Poinsignon,Anne, AU - Dagnogo,Mamadou, AU - Remoue,Franck, Y1 - 2019/03/11/ PY - 2018/09/14/received PY - 2019/03/01/accepted PY - 2019/3/13/entrez PY - 2019/3/13/pubmed PY - 2019/4/17/medline KW - Anopheles KW - Transmission risk KW - Urban malaria, salivary biomarker of exposure SP - 68 EP - 68 JF - Malaria journal JO - Malar J VL - 18 IS - 1 N2 - BACKGROUND: In some African cities, urban malaria is a threat to the health and welfare of city dwellers. To improve the control of the disease, it is critical to identify neighbourhoods where the risk of malaria transmission is the highest. This study aims to evaluate the heterogeneity of malaria transmission risk in one city (Bouaké) in a West African country (Côte d'Ivoire) that presents several levels of urbanization. METHODS: Two cross-sectional studies were conducted in three neighbourhoods (Dar-es-Salam, Kennedy and N'gattakro) in Bouaké during both the rainy and dry seasons. Data on insecticide-treated net (ITN) use and blood samples were collected from children aged between 6 months and 15 years to determine the parasite density and the prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum and the level of IgG against the Anopheles gSG6-P1 salivary peptide, used as the biomarker of Anopheles bite exposure. RESULTS: The specific IgG levels to the gSG6-P1 salivary peptide in the rainy season were significantly higher compared to the dry season in all neighbourhoods studied (all p < 0.001). Interestingly, these specific IgG levels did not differ between neighbourhoods during the rainy season, whereas significant differences in IgG level were observed in the dry season (p = 0.034). ITN use could be a major factor of variation in the specific IgG level. Nevertheless, no difference in specific IgG levels to the gSG6-P1 salivary peptide was observed between children who declared "always" versus "never" sleeping under an ITN in each neighbourhood. In addition, the prevalence of P. falciparum in the whole population and immune responders was significantly different between neighbourhoods in each season (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: This study highlights the high risk of malaria exposure in African urban settings and the high heterogeneity of child exposure to the Anopheles vector between neighbourhoods in the same city. The Anopheles gSG6-P1 salivary peptide could be a suitable biomarker to accurately and quantitatively assess the risk of malaria transmission in urban areas. SN - 1475-2875 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/30857543/Exploring_the_heterogeneity_of_human_exposure_to_malaria_vectors_in_an_urban_setting_Bouaké_Côte_d'Ivoire_using_an_immuno_epidemiological_biomarker_ L2 - https://malariajournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12936-019-2696-z DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -