Effect of Resveratrol on biofilm formation and virulence factor gene expression of Porphyromonas gingivalis in periodontal disease.APMIS. 2019 Apr; 127(4):187-195.A
Periodontal disease is an oral inflammatory disease that destroys the tooth supporting periodontal tissues resulting in tooth loss. Porphyromonas gingivalis is a keystone pathogen that plays a significant role in periodontitis. In previous studies, resveratrol has shown significant results by targeting inflammatory and adhesive markers. Virulence factors of P. gingivalis play an important role in the bacterial adhesion and colonization. In this study, we aimed to demonstrate the anti-biofilm and anti-bacterial activity of resveratrol and also study the effect of resveratrol on the expression of virulence factor genes of P. gingivalis using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The anti-microbial and anti-biofilm activity of resveratrol on P. gingivalis was carried out by broth microdilution assay and biofilm adhesion reduction-crystal violet assay, respectively. We carried out the gene expression analysis by RT-PCR with the P. gingivalis treated compound to analyze the change in the expression of virulence factors: fimbriae and gingipain. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of resveratrol against P. gingivalis and other clinical strains are in the range of 78.12-156.25 μg/mL. Resveratrol dose-dependently prevented the biofilm formation and also attenuated the virulence of P. gingivalis by reducing the expression of virulence factor genes such as fimbriae (type II and IV) and proteinases (kgp and rgpA). Resveratrol demonstrated superior anti-bacterial and anti-biofilm activity against P. gingivalis. There was significant reduction in the expression of fimbriae and gingipain with the resveratrol-treated compound. The results suggest that resveratrol, due to its multiple actions, may become a simple and inexpensive therapeutic strategy for treating periodontal disease.